Geshem Or Gashmu, firmness, probably chief of the Arabs south of Palestine, one of the enemies of the Jews after the return from Babylon (Neh 2:19; Neh 6:1, Neh 6:2). He united with Sanballat and Tobiah in opposing the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem.
Geshur Bridge, the name of a district or principality of Syria near Gilead, between Mount Hermon and the Lake of Tiberias (Sa2 15:8; Ch1 2:23). The Geshurites probably inhabited the rocky fastness of Argob, the modern Lejah, in the north-east corner of Bashan. In the time of David it was ruled by Talmai, whose daughter he married, and who was the mother of Absalom, who fled to Geshur after the murder of Amnon (Sa2 13:37).
Geshurites (1.) The inhabitants of Geshur. They maintained friendly relations with the Israelites on the east of Jordan (Jos 12:5; Jos 13:11, Jos 13:13). (2.) Another aboriginal people of Palestine who inhabited the south-west border of the land. Geshuri in Jos 13:2 should be "the Geshurite," not the Geshurites mentioned in Jos 13:11, Jos 13:13, but the tribe mentioned in Sa1 27:8.
Gethsemane Oil-press, the name of an olive-yard at the foot of the Mount of Olives, to which Jesus was wont to retire (Luk 22:39) with his disciples, and which is specially memorable as being the scene of his agony (Mar 14:32; Joh 18:1; Luk 22:44). The plot of ground pointed out as Gethsemane is now surrounded by a wall, and is laid out as a modern European flower-garden. It contains eight venerable olive-trees, the age of which cannot, however, be determined. The exact site of Gethsemane is still in question. Dr. Thomson (The Land and the Book) says: "When I first came to Jerusalem, and for many years afterward, this plot of ground was open to all whenever they chose to come and meditate beneath its very old olive trees. The Latins, however, have within the last few years succeeded in gaining sole possession, and have built a high wall around it... The Greeks have invented another site a little to the north of it... My own impression is that both are wrong. The position is too near the city, and so close to what must have always been the great thoroughfare eastward, that our Lord would scarcely have selected it for retirement on that dangerous and dismal night... I am inclined to place the garden in the secluded vale several hundred yards to the north-east of the present Gethsemane."
Gezer A precipice, an ancient royal Canaanitish city (Jos 10:33; Jos 12:12). It was allotted with its suburbs to the Kohathite Levites (Jos 21:21; Ch1 6:67). It stood between the lower Beth-horon and the sea (Jos 16:3; Kg1 9:17). It was the last point to which David pursued the Philistines (Sa2 5:25; Ch1 14:16) after the battle of Baal-perazim. The Canaanites retained possession of it till the time of Solomon, when the king of Egypt took it and gave it to Solomon as a part of the dowry of the Egyptian princess whom he married (Kg1 9:15). It is identified with Tell el-Jezer, about 10 miles south-west of Beth-horon. It is mentioned in the Amarna tablets.
Ghost An old Saxon word equivalent to soul or spirit. It is the translation of the Hebrew nephesh and the Greek pneuma , both meaning "breath," "life," "spirit," the "living principle" (Job 11:20; Jer 15:9; Mat 27:50; Joh 19:30). The expression "to give up the ghost" means to die (Lam 1:19; Gen 25:17; Gen 35:29; Gen 49:33; Job 3:11). (See HOLY GHOST.)
Giants (1.) Heb. nephilim , meaning "violent" or "causing to fall" (Gen 6:4). These were the violent tyrants of those days, those who fell upon others. The word may also be derived from a root signifying "wonder," and hence "monsters" or "prodigies." In Num 13:33 this name is given to a Canaanitish tribe, a race of large stature, "the sons of Anak." The Revised Version, in these passages, simply transliterates the original, and reads "Nephilim." (2.) Heb. rephaim , a race of giants (Deu 3:11) who lived on the east of Jordan, from whom was descended. They were probably the original inhabitants of the land before the immigration of the Canaanites. They were conquered by Chedorlaomer (Gen 14:5), and their territories were promised as a possession to Abraham (Gen 15:20). The Anakim, Zuzim, and Emim were branches of this stock. In Job 26:5 (R.V., "they that are deceased;" marg., "the shades," the "Rephaim") and Isa 14:9 this Hebrew word is rendered (A.V.) "dead." It means here "the shades," the departed spirits in Sheol. In Sa2 21:16, Sa2 21:18, Sa2 21:20, 33, "the giant" is (A.V.) the rendering of the singular form ha raphah, which may possibly be the name of the father of the four giants referred to here, or of the founder of the Rephaim. The Vulgate here reads "Arapha," whence Milton (in Samson Agonistes) has borrowed the name "Harapha." (See also Ch1 20:5, Ch1 20:6, Ch1 20:8; Deu 2:11, Deu 2:20; Deu 3:13; Jos 15:8, etc., where the word is similarly rendered "giant.") It is rendered "dead" in (A.V.) Psa 88:10; Pro 2:18; Pro 9:18; Pro 21:16 : in all these places the Revised Version marg. has "the shades." (See also Isa 26:14.) (3.) Heb. 'Anakim (Deu 2:10, Deu 2:11, Deu 2:21; Jos 11:21, Jos 11:22; Jos 14:12, Jos 14:15; called "sons of Anak," Num 13:33; "children of Anak," Num 13:22; Jos 15:14), a nomad race of giants descended from Arba (Jos 14:15), the father of Anak, that dwelt in the south of Palestine near Hebron (Gen 23:2; Jos 15:13). They were a Cushite tribe of the same race as the Philistines and the Egyptian shepherd kings. David on several occasions encountered them (Sa2 21:15). From this race sprung Goliath (Sa1 17:4). (4.) Heb. 'emin , a warlike tribe of the ancient Canaanites. They were "great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims" (Gen 14:5; Deu 2:10, Deu 2:11). (5.) Heb. Zamzummim (q.v.), Deu 2:20 so called by the Amorites. (6.) Heb. gibbor (Job 16:14), a mighty one, i.e., a champion or hero. In its plural form (gibborim) it is rendered "mighty men" (2 Sam. 23:8-39; Kg1 1:8; 1 Chr. 11:9-47; Ch1 29:24.) The band of six hundred whom David gathered around him when he was a fugitive were so designated. They were divided into three divisions of two hundred each, and thirty divisions of twenty each. The captains of the thirty divisions were called "the thirty," the captains of the two hundred "the three," and the captain over the whole was called "chief among the captains" (Sa2 23:8). The sons born of the marriages mentioned in Gen 6:4 are also called by this Hebrew name.
Gibbethon A height, a city of the Philistines in the territory of Dan, given to the Kohathites (Jos 19:44; Jos 21:23). Nadab the king of Israel, while besieging it, was slain under its walls by Baasha, one of his own officers (Kg1 15:27). It was in the possession of the Philistines after the secession of the ten tribes (Ch2 11:13, Ch2 11:14).
Gibeah A hill or hill-town, "of Benjamin" (Sa1 13:15), better known as "Gibeah of Saul" (Sa1 11:4; Isa 10:29). It was here that the terrible outrage was committed on the Levite's concubine which led to the almost utter extirpation of the tribe of Benjamin (Judg. 19; 20), only six hundred men surviving after a succession of disastrous battles. This was the birthplace of Saul, and continued to be his residence after he became king (Sa1 10:26; Sa1 11:4; Sa1 15:34). It was reckoned among the ancient sanctuaries of Palestine (Sa1 10:26; Sa1 15:34; Sa1 23:19; Sa1 26:1; Sa2 21:6), and hence it is called "Gibeah of God" (Sa1 10:5, R.V. marg.). It has been identified with the modern Tell el-Ful (i.e., "hill of the bean"), about 3 miles north of Jerusalem.
Gibeah of Judah (Jos 15:57), a city in the mountains of Judah, the modern Jeba, on a hill in the Wady Musurr, about 71/2 miles west-south-west of Bethlehem.