500 BC
                                CONFUCIAN ANALECTS
                        translated by James Legge [1893]
   The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance
 and application?
   "Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?
   "Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure
 though men may take no note of him?"
   The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and
 fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have
 been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have
 been fond of stirring up confusion.
   "The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being
 established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and
 fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent
   The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are
 seldom associated with true virtue."
   The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three
 points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been
 not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been
 not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the
 instructions of my teacher."
   The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there
 must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in
 expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the
 proper seasons."
   The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and,
 abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful.
 He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the
 good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these
 things, he should employ them in polite studies."
   Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of
 beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if,
 in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in
 serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse
 with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he
 has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.
   The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call
 forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.
   "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
   "Have no friends not equal to yourself.
   "When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."
   The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to
 perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when
 long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the
 people will resume its proper excellence."
   Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any
 country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he
 ask his information? or is it given to him?"
   Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous,
 temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The
 master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that
 of other men?"
   The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of
 his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three
 years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called
   The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a
 natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient
 kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we
 follow them.
   "Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such
 ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the
 rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."
   The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what
 is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown
 according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace.
 When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be
 intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."
   The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in
 his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling
 place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is
 doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of
 principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed
 to love to learn."
   Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who
 yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master
 replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though
 poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules
 of propriety."
   Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut
 and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same,
 I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."
   The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the
 odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."
   The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I
 will be afflicted that I do not know men."
   The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue
 may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all
 the stars turn towards it."
   The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces,
 but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having
 no depraved thoughts.'"
   The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity
 sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the
 punishment, but have no sense of shame.
   "If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by
 the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and
 moreover will become good."
   The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.
   "At thirty, I stood firm.
   "At forty, I had no doubts.
   "At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.
   "At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.
   "At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without
 transgressing what was right."
   Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not
 being disobedient."
   Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him,
 saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered
 him,-'not being disobedient.'"
   Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That
 parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when
 dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they
 should be sacrificed to according to propriety."
   Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are
 anxious lest their children should be sick."
   Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial
 piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses
 likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without
 reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the
   Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The
 difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any
 troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the
 young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS
 to be considered filial piety?"
   The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has
 not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He
 has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and
 found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."
   The Master said, "See what a man does.
   "Mark his motives.
   "Examine in what things he rests.
   "How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his
   The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as
 continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."
   The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."
   Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master
 said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to
 his actions."
   The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The
 mean man is partisan and not catholic."
   The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought
 without learning is perilous."
   The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious
   The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When
 you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a
 thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."
   Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.
   The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you
 stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the
 others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put
 aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the
 same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few
 occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in
 his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in
 the way to get emolument."
   The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure
 the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright
 and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the
 crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."
   Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to
 be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The
 Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will
 reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be
 faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the
 incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."
   Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not
 engaged in the government?"
   The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial
 piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These
 qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the
 exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the
   The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to
 get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar
 for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement
 for yoking the horses?"
   Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be
   Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the
 Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau
 dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or
 added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though
 it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be
   The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does
 not belong to him is flattery.
   "To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."
   Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows
 of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not
 bear to do?"
   The three families used the Yungode, while the vessels were being
 removed, at the conclusion of the sacrifice. The Master said,
 "'Assisting are the princes;-the son of heaven looks profound and
 grave';-what application can these words have in the hall of the three
   The Master said, "If a man be without the virtues proper to
 humanity, what has he to do with the rites of propriety? If a man be
 without the virtues proper to humanity, what has he to do with music?"
   Lin Fang asked what was the first thing to be attended to in
   The Master said, "A great question indeed!
   "In festive ceremonies, it is better to be sparing than extravagant.
 In the ceremonies of mourning, it is better that there be deep
 sorrow than in minute attention to observances."
   The Master said, "The rude tribes of the east and north have their
 princes, and are not like the States of our great land which are
 without them."
   The chief of the Chi family was about to sacrifice to the T'ai
 mountain. The Master said to Zan Yu, "Can you not save him from this?"
 He answered, "I cannot." Confucius said, "Alas! will you say that
 the T'ai mountain is not so discerning as Lin Fang?"
   The Master said, "The student of virtue has no contentions. If it be
 said he cannot avoid them, shall this be in archery? But he bows
 complaisantly to his competitors; thus he ascends the hall,
 descends, and exacts the forfeit of drinking. In his contention, he is
 still the Chun-tsze."
   Tsze-hsia asked, saying, "What is the meaning of the passage-'The
 pretty dimples of her artful smile! The well-defined black and white
 of her eye! The plain ground for the colors?'"
   The Master said, "The business of laying on the colors follows the
 preparation of the plain ground."
   "Ceremonies then are a subsequent thing?" The Master said, "It is
 Shang who can bring out my meaning. Now I can begin to talk about
 the odes with him."
   The Master said, "I could describe the ceremonies of the Hsia
 dynasty, but Chi cannot sufficiently attest my words. I could describe
 the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty, but Sung cannot sufficiently attest
 my words. They cannot do so because of the insufficiency of their
 records and wise men. If those were sufficient, I could adduce them in
 support of my words."
   The Master said, "At the great sacrifice, after the pouring out of
 the libation, I have no wish to look on."
   Some one asked the meaning of the great sacrifice. The Master
 said, "I do not know. He who knew its meaning would find it as easy to
 govern the kingdom as to look on this"-pointing to his palm.
   He sacrificed to the dead, as if they were present. He sacrificed to
 the spirits, as if the spirits were present.
   The Master said, "I consider my not being present at the
 sacrifice, as if I did not sacrifice."
   Wang-sun Chia asked, saying, "What is the meaning of the saying, 'It
 is better to pay court to the furnace then to the southwest corner?'"
   The Master said, "Not so. He who offends against Heaven has none
 to whom he can pray."
   The Master said, "Chau had the advantage of viewing the two past
 dynasties. How complete and elegant are its regulations! I follow
   The Master, when he entered the grand temple, asked about
 everything. Some one said, "Who say that the son of the man of Tsau
 knows the rules of propriety! He has entered the grand temple and asks
 about everything." The Master heard the remark, and said, "This is a
 rule of propriety."
   The Master said, "In archery it is not going through the leather
 which is the principal thing;-because people's strength is not
 equal. This was the old way."
   Tsze-kung wished to do away with the offering of a sheep connected
 with the inauguration of the first day of each month.
   The Master said, "Ts'ze, you love the sheep; I love the ceremony."
   The Master said, "The full observance of the rules of propriety in
 serving one's prince is accounted by people to be flattery."
   The Duke Ting asked how a prince should employ his ministers, and
 how ministers should serve their prince. Confucius replied, "A
 prince should employ his minister according to according to the
 rules of propriety; ministers should serve their prince with
   The Master said, "The Kwan Tsu is expressive of enjoyment without
 being licentious, and of grief without being hurtfully excessive."
   The Duke Ai asked Tsai Wo about the altars of the spirits of the
 land. Tsai Wo replied, "The Hsia sovereign planted the pine tree about
 them; the men of the Yin planted the cypress; and the men of the
 Chau planted the chestnut tree, meaning thereby to cause the people to
 be in awe."
   When the Master heard it, he said, "Things that are done, it is
 needless to speak about; things that have had their course, it is
 needless to remonstrate about; things that are past, it is needless to
   The Master said, "Small indeed was the capacity of Kwan Chung!"
   Some one said, "Was Kwan Chung parsimonious?" "Kwan," was the reply,
 "had the San Kwei, and his officers performed no double duties; how
 can he be considered parsimonious?"
   "Then, did Kwan Chung know the rules of propriety?" The Master said,
 "The princes of States have a screen intercepting the view at their
 gates. Kwan had likewise a screen at his gate. The princes of States
 on any friendly meeting between two of them, had a stand on which to
 place their inverted cups. Kwan had also such a stand. If Kwan knew
 the rules of propriety, who does not know them?"
   The Master instructing the grand music master of Lu said, "How to
 play music may be known. At the commencement of the piece, all the
 parts should sound together. As it proceeds, they should be in harmony
 while severally distinct and flowing without break, and thus on to the
   The border warden at Yi requested to be introduced to the Master,
 saying, "When men of superior virtue have come to this, I have never
 been denied the privilege of seeing them." The followers of the sage
 introduced him, and when he came out from the interview, he said,
 "My friends, why are you distressed by your master's loss of office?
 The kingdom has long been without the principles of truth and right;
 Heaven is going to use your master as a bell with its wooden tongue."
   The Master said of the Shao that it was perfectly beautiful and also
 perfectly good. He said of the Wu that it was perfectly beautiful
 but not perfectly good.
   The Master said, "High station filled without indulgent
 generosity; ceremonies performed without reverence; mourning conducted
 without sorrow;-wherewith should I contemplate such ways?"
   The Master said, "It is virtuous manners which constitute the
 excellence of a neighborhood. If a man in selecting a residence do not
 fix on one where such prevail, how can he be wise?"
   The Master said, "Those who are without virtue cannot abide long
 either in a condition of poverty and hardship, or in a condition of
 enjoyment. The virtuous rest in virtue; the wise desire virtue."
   The Master said, "It is only the truly virtuous man, who can love,
 or who can hate, others."
   The Master said, "If the will be set on virtue, there will be no
 practice of wickedness."
   The Master said, "Riches and honors are what men desire. If they
 cannot be obtained in the proper way, they should not be held. Poverty
 and meanness are what men dislike. If they cannot be avoided in the
 proper way, they should not be avoided.
   "If a superior man abandon virtue, how can he fulfill the
 requirements of that name?
   "The superior man does not, even for the space of a single meal, act
 contrary to virtue. In moments of haste, he cleaves to it. In
 seasons of danger, he cleaves to it."
   The Master said, "I have not seen a person who loved virtue, or
 one who hated what was not virtuous. He who loved virtue, would esteem
 nothing above it. He who hated what is not virtuous, would practice
 virtue in such a way that he would not allow anything that is not
 virtuous to approach his person.
   "Is any one able for one day to apply his strength to virtue? I have
 not seen the case in which his strength would be insufficient.
   "Should there possibly be any such case, I have not seen it."
   The Master said, "The faults of men are characteristic of the
 class to which they belong. By observing a man's faults, it may be
 known that he is virtuous."
   The Master said, "If a man in the morning hear the right way, he may
 die in the evening hear regret."
   The Master said, "A scholar, whose mind is set on truth, and who
 is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, is not fit to be discoursed
   The Master said, "The superior man, in the world, does not set his
 mind either for anything, or against anything; what is right he will
   The Master said, "The superior man thinks of virtue; the small man
 thinks of comfort. The superior man thinks of the sanctions of law;
 the small man thinks of favors which he may receive."
   The Master said: "He who acts with a constant view to his own
 advantage will be much murmured against."
   The Master said, "If a prince is able to govern his kingdom with the
 complaisance proper to the rules of propriety, what difficulty will he
 have? If he cannot govern it with that complaisance, what has he to do
 with the rules of propriety?"
   The Master said, "A man should say, I am not concerned that I have
 no place, I am concerned how I may fit myself for one. I am not
 concerned that I am not known, I seek to be worthy to be known."
   The Master said, "Shan, my doctrine is that of an all-pervading
 unity." The disciple Tsang replied, "Yes."
   The Master went out, and the other disciples asked, saying, "What do
 his words mean?" Tsang said, "The doctrine of our master is to be true
 to the principles-of our nature and the benevolent exercise of them to
 others,-this and nothing more."
   The Master said, "The mind of the superior man is conversant with
 righteousness; the mind of the mean man is conversant with gain."
   The Master said, "When we see men of worth, we should think of
 equaling them; when we see men of a contrary character, we should turn
 inwards and examine ourselves."
   The Master said, "In serving his parents, a son may remonstrate with
 them, but gently; when he sees that they do not incline to follow
 his advice, he shows an increased degree of reverence, but does not
 abandon his purpose; and should they punish him, he does not allow
 himself to murmur."
   The Master said, "While his parents are alive, the son may not go
 abroad to a distance. If he does go abroad, he must have a fixed place
 to which he goes."
   The Master said, "If the son for three years does not alter from the
 way of his father, he may be called filial."
   The Master said, "The years of parents may by no means not be kept
 in the memory, as an occasion at once for joy and for fear."
   The Master said, "The reason why the ancients did not readily give
 utterance to their words, was that they feared lest their actions
 should not come up to them."
   The Master said, "The cautious seldom err."
   The Master said, "The superior man wishes to be slow in his speech
 and earnest in his conduct."
   The Master said, "Virtue is not left to stand alone. He who
 practices it will have neighbors."
   Tsze-yu said, "In serving a prince, frequent remonstrances lead to
 disgrace. Between friends, frequent reproofs make the friendship
   The Master said of Kung-ye Ch'ang that he might be wived; although
 he was put in bonds, he had not been guilty of any crime. Accordingly,
 he gave him his own daughter to wife.
   Of Nan Yung he said that if the country were well governed he
 would not be out of office, and if it were in governed, he would
 escape punishment and disgrace. He gave him the daughter of his own
 elder brother to wife.
   The Master said of Tsze-chien, "Of superior virtue indeed is such
 a man! If there were not virtuous men in Lu, how could this man have
 acquired this character?"
   Tsze-kung asked, "What do you say of me, Ts'ze!" The Master said,
 "You are a utensil." "What utensil?" "A gemmed sacrificial utensil."
   Some one said, "Yung is truly virtuous, but he is not ready with his
   The Master said, "What is the good of being ready with the tongue?
 They who encounter men with smartness of speech for the most part
 procure themselves hatred. I know not whether he be truly virtuous,
 but why should he show readiness of the tongue?"
   The Master was wishing Ch'i-tiao K'ai to enter an official
 employment. He replied, "I am not yet able to rest in the assurance of
 this." The Master was pleased.
   The Master said, "My doctrines make no way. I will get upon a
 raft, and float about on the sea. He that will accompany me will be
 Yu, I dare say." Tsze-lu hearing this was glad, upon which the
 Master said, "Yu is fonder of daring than I am. He does not exercise
 his judgment upon matters."
   Mang Wu asked about Tsze-lu, whether he was perfectly virtuous.
 The Master said, "I do not know."
   He asked again, when the Master replied, "In a kingdom of a thousand
 chariots, Yu might be employed to manage the military levies, but I do
 not know whether he be perfectly virtuous."
   "And what do you say of Ch'iu?" The Master replied, "In a city of
 a thousand families, or a clan of a hundred chariots, Ch'iu might be
 employed as governor, but I do not know whether he is perfectly
   "What do you say of Ch'ih?" The Master replied, "With his sash
 girt and standing in a court, Ch'ih might be employed to converse with
 the visitors and guests, but I do not know whether he is perfectly
   The Master said to Tsze-kung, "Which do you consider superior,
 yourself or Hui?"
   Tsze-kung replied, "How dare I compare myself with Hui? Hui hears
 one point and knows all about a subject; I hear one point, and know
 a second."
   The Master said, "You are not equal to him. I grant you, you are not
 equal to him."
   Tsai Yu being asleep during the daytime, the Master said, "Rotten
 wood cannot be carved; a wall of dirty earth will not receive the
 trowel. This Yu,-what is the use of my reproving him?"
   The Master said, "At first, my way with men was to hear their words,
 and give them credit for their conduct. Now my way is to hear their
 words, and look at their conduct. It is from Yu that I have learned to
 make this change."
   The Master said, "I have not seen a firm and unbending man." Some
 one replied, "There is Shan Ch'ang." "Ch'ang," said the Master, "is
 under the influence of his passions; how can he be pronounced firm and
   Tsze-kung said, "What I do not wish men to do to me, I also wish not
 to do to men." The Master said, "Ts'ze, you have not attained to
   Tsze-kung said, "The Master's personal displays of his principles
 and ordinary descriptions of them may be heard. His discourses about
 man's nature, and the way of Heaven, cannot be heard."
   When Tsze-lu heard anything, if he had not yet succeeded in carrying
 it into practice, he was only afraid lest he should hear something
   Tsze-kung asked, saying, "On what ground did Kung-wan get that title
 of Wan?"
   The Master said, "He was of an active nature and yet fond of
 learning, and he was not ashamed to ask and learn of his inferiors!-On
 these grounds he has been styled Wan."
   The Master said of Tsze-ch'an that he had four of the
 characteristics of a superior man-in his conduct of himself, he was
 humble; in serving his superior, he was respectful; in nourishing
 the people, he was kind; in ordering the people, he was just."
   The Master said, "Yen P'ing knew well how to maintain friendly
 intercourse. The acquaintance might be long, but he showed the same
 respect as at first."
   The Master said, "Tsang Wan kept a large tortoise in a house, on the
 capitals of the pillars of which he had hills made, and with
 representations of duckweed on the small pillars above the beams
 supporting the rafters.-Of what sort was his wisdom?"
   Tsze-chang asked, saying, "The minister Tsze-wan thrice took office,
 and manifested no joy in his countenance. Thrice he retired from
 office, and manifested no displeasure. He made it a point to inform
 the new minister of the way in which he had conducted the
 government; what do you say of him?" The Master replied. "He was
 loyal." "Was he perfectly virtuous?" "I do not know. How can he be
 pronounced perfectly virtuous?"
   Tsze-chang proceeded, "When the officer Ch'ui killed the prince of
 Ch'i, Ch'an Wan, though he was the owner of forty horses, abandoned
 them and left the country. Coming to another state, he said, 'They are
 here like our great officer, Ch'ui,' and left it. He came to a
 second state, and with the same observation left it also;-what do
 you say of him?" The Master replied, "He was pure." "Was he
 perfectly virtuous?" "I do not know. How can he be pronounced
 perfectly virtuous?"
   Chi Wan thought thrice, and then acted. When the Master was informed
 of it, he said, "Twice may do."
   The Master said, "When good order prevailed in his country, Ning
 Wu acted the part of a wise man. When his country was in disorder,
 he acted the part of a stupid man. Others may equal his wisdom, but
 they cannot equal his stupidity."
   When the Master was in Ch'an, he said, "Let me return! Let me
 return! The little children of my school are ambitious and too
 hasty. They are accomplished and complete so far, but they do not know
 how to restrict and shape themselves."
   The Master said, "Po-i and Shu-ch'i did not keep the former
 wickednesses of men in mind, and hence the resentments directed
 towards them were few."
   The Master said, "Who says of Weishang Kao that he is upright? One
 begged some vinegar of him, and he begged it of a neighbor and gave it
 to the man."
   The Master said, "Fine words, an insinuating appearance, and
 excessive respect;-Tso Ch'iu-ming was ashamed of them. I also am
 ashamed of them. To conceal resentment against a person, and appear
 friendly with him;-Tso Ch'iu-ming was ashamed of such conduct. I
 also am ashamed of it."
   Yen Yuan and Chi Lu being by his side, the Master said to them,
 "Come, let each of you tell his wishes."
   Tsze-lu said, "I should like, having chariots and horses, and
 light fur clothes, to share them with my friends, and though they
 should spoil them, I would not be displeased."
   Yen Yuan said, "I should like not to boast of my excellence, nor
 to make a display of my meritorious deeds."
   Tsze-lu then said, "I should like, sir, to hear your wishes." The
 Master said, "They are, in regard to the aged, to give them rest; in
 regard to friends, to show them sincerity; in regard to the young,
 to treat them tenderly."
   The Master said, "It is all over. I have not yet seen one who
 could perceive his faults, and inwardly accuse himself."
   The Master said, "In a hamlet of ten families, there may be found
 one honorable and sincere as I am, but not so fond of learning."
   The Master said, "There is Yung!-He might occupy the place of a
   Chung-kung asked about Tsze-sang Po-tsze. The Master said, "He may
 pass. He does not mind small matters."
   Chung-kung said, "If a man cherish in himself a reverential
 feeling of the necessity of attention to business, though he may be
 easy in small matters in his government of the people, that may be
 allowed. But if he cherish in himself that easy feeling, and also
 carry it out in his practice, is not such an easymode of procedure
   The Master said, "Yung's words are right."
   The Duke Ai asked which of the disciples loved to learn.
   Confucius replied to him, "There was Yen Hui; he loved to learn.
 He did not transfer his anger; he did not repeat a fault.
 Unfortunately, his appointed time was short and he died; and now there
 is not such another. I have not yet heard of any one who loves to
 learn as he did."
   Tsze-hwa being employed on a mission to Ch'i, the disciple Zan
 requested grain for his mother. The Master said, "Give her a fu."
 Yen requested more. "Give her a yi," said the Master. Yen gave her
 five ping.
   The Master said, "When Ch'ih was proceeding to Ch'i, he had fat
 horses to his carriage, and wore light furs. I have heard that a
 superior man helps the distressed, but does not add to the wealth of
 the rich."
   Yuan Sze being made governor of his town by the Master, he gave
 him nine hundred measures of grain, but Sze declined them.
   The Master said, "Do not decline them. May you not give them away in
 the neighborhoods, hamlets, towns, and villages?"
   The Master, speaking of Chung-kung, said, "If the calf of a brindled
 cow be red and homed, although men may not wish to use it, would the
 spirits of the mountains and rivers put it aside?"
   The Master said, "Such was Hui that for three months there would
 be nothing in his mind contrary to perfect virtue. The others may
 attain to this on some days or in some months, but nothing more."
   Chi K'ang asked about Chung-yu, whether he was fit to be employed as
 an officer of government. The Master said, "Yu is a man of decision;
 what difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?"
 K'ang asked, "Is Ts'ze fit to be employed as an officer of
 government?" and was answered, "Ts'ze is a man of intelligence; what
 difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?" And to
 the same question about Ch'iu the Master gave the same reply,
 saying, "Ch'iu is a man of various ability."
   The chief of the Chi family sent to ask Min Tsze-ch'ien to be
 governor of Pi. Min Tszech'ien said, "Decline the offer for me
 politely. If any one come again to me with a second invitation, I
 shall be obliged to go and live on the banks of the Wan."
   Po-niu being ill, the Master went to ask for him. He took hold of
 his hand through the window, and said, "It is killing him. It is the
 appointment of Heaven, alas! That such a man should have such a
 sickness! That such a man should have such a sickness!"
   The Master said, "Admirable indeed was the virtue of Hui! With a
 single bamboo dish of rice, a single gourd dish of drink, and living
 in his mean narrow lane, while others could not have endured the
 distress, he did not allow his joy to be affected by it. Admirable
 indeed was the virtue of Hui!"
   Yen Ch'iu said, "It is not that I do not delight in your
 doctrines, but my strength is insufficient." The Master said, "Those
 whose strength is insufficient give over in the middle of the way
 but now you limit yourself."
   The Master said to Tsze-hsia, "Do you be a scholar after the style
 of the superior man, and not after that of the mean man."
   Tsze-yu being governor of Wu-ch'ang, the Master said to him, "Have
 you got good men there?" He answered, "There is Tan-t'ai Miehming, who
 never in walking takes a short cut, and never comes to my office,
 excepting on public business."
   The Master said, "Mang Chih-fan does not boast of his merit. Being
 in the rear on an occasion of flight, when they were about to enter
 the gate, he whipped up his horse, saying, "It is not that I dare to
 be last. My horse would not advance."
   The Master said, "Without the specious speech of the litanist T'o
 and the beauty of the prince Chao of Sung, it is difficult to escape
 in the present age."
   The Master said, "Who can go out but by the door? How is it that men
 will not walk according to these ways?"
   The Master said, "Where the solid qualities are in excess of
 accomplishments, we have rusticity; where the accomplishments are in
 excess of the solid qualities, we have the manners of a clerk. When
 the accomplishments and solid qualities are equally blended, we then
 have the man of virtue."
   The Master said, "Man is born for uprightness. If a man lose his
 uprightness, and yet live, his escape from death is the effect of mere
 good fortune."
   The Master said, "They who know the truth are not equal to those who
 love it, and they who love it are not equal to those who delight in
   The Master said, "To those whose talents are above mediocrity, the
 highest subjects may be announced. To those who are below
 mediocrity, the highest subjects may not be announced."
   Fan Ch'ih asked what constituted wisdom. The Master said, "To give
 one's self earnestly to the duties due to men, and, while respecting
 spiritual beings, to keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom." He
 asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "The man of virtue
 makes the difficulty to be overcome his first business, and success
 only a subsequent consideration;-this may be called perfect virtue."
   The Master said, "The wise find pleasure in water; the virtuous find
 pleasure in hills. The wise are active; the virtuous are tranquil. The
 wise are joyful; the virtuous are long-lived."
   The Master said, "Ch'i, by one change, would come to the State of
 Lu. Lu, by one change, would come to a State where true principles
   The Master said, "A cornered vessel without corners-a strange
 cornered vessel! A strange cornered vessel!"
   Tsai Wo asked, saying, "A benevolent man, though it be told
 him,-'There is a man in the well" will go in after him, I suppose."
 Confucius said, "Why should he do so?" A superior man may be made to
 go to the well, but he cannot be made to go down into it. He may be
 imposed upon, but he cannot be fooled."
   The Master said, "The superior man, extensively studying all
 learning, and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of
 propriety, may thus likewise not overstep what is right."
   The Master having visited Nan-tsze, Tsze-lu was displeased, on which
 the Master swore, saying, "Wherein I have done improperly, may
 Heaven reject me, may Heaven reject me!"
   The Master said, "Perfect is the virtue which is according to the
 Constant Mean! Rare for a long time has been its practice among the
   Tsze-kung said, "Suppose the case of a man extensively conferring
 benefits on the people, and able to assist all, what would you say
 of him? Might he be called perfectly virtuous?" The Master said,
 "Why speak only of virtue in connection with him? Must he not have the
 qualities of a sage? Even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about
   "Now the man of perfect virtue, wishing to be established himself,
 seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he
 seeks also to enlarge others.
   "To be able to judge of others by what is nigh in ourselves;-this
 may be called the art of virtue."
   The Master said, "A transmitter and not a maker, believing in and
 loving the ancients, I venture to compare myself with our old P'ang."
   The Master said, "The silent treasuring up of knowledge; learning
 without satiety; and instructing others without being wearied:-which
 one of these things belongs to me?"
   The Master said, "The leaving virtue without proper cultivation; the
 not thoroughly discussing what is learned; not being able to move
 towards righteousness of which a knowledge is gained; and not being
 able to change what is not good:-these are the things which occasion
 me solicitude."
   When the Master was unoccupied with business, his manner was easy,
 and he looked pleased.
   The Master said, "Extreme is my decay. For a long time, I have not
 dreamed, as I was wont to do, that I saw the duke of Chau."
   The Master said, "Let the will be set on the path of duty.
   "Let every attainment in what is good be firmly grasped.
   "Let perfect virtue be accorded with.
   "Let relaxation and enjoyment be found in the polite arts."
   The Master said, "From the man bringing his bundle of dried flesh
 for my teaching upwards, I have never refused instruction to any one."
   The Master said, "I do not open up the truth to one who is not eager
 to get knowledge, nor help out any one who is not anxious to explain
 himself. When I have presented one corner of a subject to any one, and
 he cannot from it learn the other three, I do not repeat my lesson."
   When the Master was eating by the side of a mourner, he never ate to
 the full.
   He did not sing on the same day in which he had been weeping.
   The Master said to Yen Yuan, "When called to office, to undertake
 its duties; when not so called, to he retired;-it is only I and you
 who have attained to this."
   Tsze-lu said, "If you had the conduct of the armies of a great
 state, whom would you have to act with you?"
   The Master said, "I would not have him to act with me, who will
 unarmed attack a tiger, or cross a river without a boat, dying without
 any regret. My associate must be the man who proceeds to action full
 of solicitude, who is fond of adjusting his plans, and then carries
 them into execution."
   The Master said, "If the search for riches is sure to be successful,
 though I should become a groom with whip in hand to get them, I will
 do so. As the search may not be successful, I will follow after that
 which I love."
   The things in reference to which the Master exercised the greatest
 caution were-fasting, war, and sickness.
   When the Master was in Ch'i, he heard the Shao, and for three months
 did not know the taste of flesh. "I did not think'" he said, "that
 music could have been made so excellent as this."
   Yen Yu said, "Is our Master for the ruler of Wei?" Tsze-kung said,
 "Oh! I will ask him."
   He went in accordingly, and said, "What sort of men were Po-i and
 Shu-ch'i?" "They were ancient worthies," said the Master. "Did they
 have any repinings because of their course?" The Master again replied,
 "They sought to act virtuously, and they did so; what was there for
 them to repine about?" On this, Tsze-kung went out and said, "Our
 Master is not for him."
   The Master said, "With coarse rice to eat, with water to drink,
 and my bended arm for a pillow;-I have still joy in the midst of these
 things. Riches and honors acquired by unrighteousness, are to me as
 a floating cloud."
   The Master said, "If some years were added to my life, I would
 give fifty to the study of the Yi, and then I might come to be without
 great faults."
   The Master's frequent themes of discourse were-the Odes, the
 History, and the maintenance of the Rules of Propriety. On all these
 he frequently discoursed.
   The Duke of Sheh asked Tsze-lu about Confucius, and Tsze-lu did
 not answer him.
   The Master said, "Why did you not say to him,-He is simply a man,
 who in his eager pursuit of knowledge forgets his food, who in the joy
 of its attainment forgets his sorrows, and who does not perceive
 that old age is coming on?"
   The Master said, "I am not one who was born in the possession of
 knowledge; I am one who is fond of antiquity, and earnest in seeking
 it there."
   The subjects on which the Master did not talk, were-extraordinary
 things, feats of strength, disorder, and spiritual beings.
   The Master said, "When I walk along with two others, they may
 serve me as my teachers. I will select their good qualities and follow
 them, their bad qualities and avoid them."
   The Master said, "Heaven produced the virtue that is in me. Hwan
 T'ui-what can he do to me?"
   The Master said, "Do you think, my disciples, that I have any
 concealments? I conceal nothing from you. There is nothing which I
 do that is not shown to you, my disciples; that is my way."
   There were four things which the Master taught,-letters, ethics,
 devotion of soul, and truthfulness.
   The Master said, "A sage it is not mine to see; could I see a man of
 real talent and virtue, that would satisfy me."
   The Master said, "A good man it is not mine to see; could I see a
 man possessed of constancy, that would satisfy me.
   "Having not and yet affecting to have, empty and yet affecting to be
 full, straitened and yet affecting to be at ease:-it is difficult with
 such characteristics to have constancy."
   The Master angled,-but did not use a net. He shot,-but not at
 birds perching.
   The Master said, "There may be those who act without knowing why.
 I do not do so. Hearing much and selecting what is good and
 following it; seeing much and keeping it in memory: this is the second
 style of knowledge."
   It was difficult to talk profitably and reputably with the people of
 Hu-hsiang, and a lad of that place having had an interview with the
 Master, the disciples doubted.
   The Master said, "I admit people's approach to me without committing
 myself as to what they may do when they have retired. Why must one
 be so severe? If a man purify himself to wait upon me, I receive him
 so purified, without guaranteeing his past conduct."
   The Master said, "Is virtue a thing remote? I wish to be virtuous,
 and lo! virtue is at hand."
   The minister of crime of Ch'an asked whether the duke Chao knew
 propriety, and Confucius said, "He knew propriety."
   Confucius having retired, the minister bowed to Wu-ma Ch'i to come
 forward, and said, "I have heard that the superior man is not a
 partisan. May the superior man be a partisan also? The prince
 married a daughter of the house of WU, of the same surname with
 himself, and called her,-'The elder Tsze of Wu.' If the prince knew
 propriety, who does not know it?"
   Wu-ma Ch'i reported these remarks, and the Master said, "I am
 fortunate! If I have any errors, people are sure to know them."
   When the Master was in company with a person who was singing, if
 he sang well, he would make him repeat the song, while he
 accompanied it with his own voice.
   The Master said, "In letters I am perhaps equal to other men, but
 the character of the superior man, carrying out in his conduct what he
 professes, is what I have not yet attained to."
   The Master said, "The sage and the man of perfect virtue;-how dare I
 rank myself with them? It may simply be said of me, that I strive to
 become such without satiety, and teach others without weariness."
 Kung-hsi Hwa said, "This is just what we, the disciples, cannot
 imitate you in."
   The Master being very sick, Tsze-lu asked leave to pray for him.
 He said, "May such a thing be done?" Tsze-lu replied, "It may. In
 the Eulogies it is said, 'Prayer has been made for thee to the spirits
 of the upper and lower worlds.'" The Master said, "My praying has been
 for a long time."
   The Master said, "Extravagance leads to insubordination, and
 parsimony to meanness. It is better to be mean than to be
   The Master said, "The superior man is satisfied and composed; the
 mean man is always full of distress."
   The Master was mild, and yet dignified; majestic, and yet not
 fierce; respectful, and yet easy.
   The Master said, "T'ai-po may be said to have reached the highest
 point of virtuous action. Thrice he declined the kingdom, and the
 people in ignorance of his motives could not express their approbation
 of his conduct."
   The Master said, "Respectfulness, without the rules of propriety,
 becomes laborious bustle; carefulness, without the rules of propriety,
 becomes timidity; boldness, without the rules of propriety, becomes
 insubordination; straightforwardness, without the rules of
 propriety, becomes rudeness.
   "When those who are in high stations perform well all their duties
 to their relations, the people are aroused to virtue. When old friends
 are not neglected by them, the people are preserved from meanness."
   The philosopher Tsang being ill, he cared to him the disciples of
 his school, and said, "Uncover my feet, uncover my hands. It is said
 in the Book of Poetry, 'We should be apprehensive and cautious, as
 if on the brink of a deep gulf, as if treading on thin ice, I and so
 have I been. Now and hereafter, I know my escape from all injury to my
 person. O ye, my little children."
   The philosopher Tsang being ill, Meng Chang went to ask how he was.
   Tsang said to him, "When a bird is about to die, its notes are
 mournful; when a man is about to die, his words are good.
   "There are three principles of conduct which the man of high rank
 should consider specially important:-that in his deportment and manner
 he keep from violence and heedlessness; that in regulating his
 countenance he keep near to sincerity; and that in his words and tones
 he keep far from lowness and impropriety. As to such matters as
 attending to the sacrificial vessels, there are the proper officers
 for them."
   The philosopher Tsang said, "Gifted with ability, and yet putting
 questions to those who were not so; possessed of much, and yet putting
 questions to those possessed of little; having, as though he had
 not; full, and yet counting himself as empty; offended against, and
 yet entering into no altercation; formerly I had a friend who
 pursued this style of conduct."
   The philosopher Tsang said, "Suppose that there is an individual who
 can be entrusted with the charge of a young orphan prince, and can
 be commissioned with authority over a state of a hundred li, and
 whom no emergency however great can drive from his principles:-is such
 a man a superior man? He is a superior man indeed."
   The philosopher Tsang said, "The officer may not be without
 breadth of mind and vigorous endurance. His burden is heavy and his
 course is long.
   "Perfect virtue is the burden which he considers it is his to
 sustain;-is it not heavy? Only with death does his course stop;-is
 it not long?
   The Master said, "It is by the Odes that the mind is aroused.
   "It is by the Rules of Propriety that the character is established.
   "It is from Music that the finish is received."
   The Master said, "The people may be made to follow a path of action,
 but they may not be made to understand it."
   The Master said, "The man who is fond of daring and is
 dissatisfied with poverty, will proceed to insubordination. So will
 the man who is not virtuous, when you carry your dislike of him to
 an extreme."
   The Master said, "Though a man have abilities as admirable as
 those of the Duke of Chau, yet if he be proud and niggardly, those
 other things are really not worth being looked at."
   The Master said, "It is not easy to find a man who has learned for
 three years without coming to be good."
   The Master said, "With sincere faith he unites the love of learning;
 holding firm to death, he is perfecting the excellence of his course.
   "Such an one will not enter a tottering state, nor dwell in a
 disorganized one. When right principles of government prevail in the
 kingdom, he will show himself; when they are prostrated, he will
 keep concealed.
   "When a country is well governed, poverty and a mean condition are
 things to be ashamed of. When a country is ill governed, riches and
 honor are things to be ashamed of."
   The Master said, "He who is not in any particular office has nothing
 to do with plans for the administration of its duties."
   The Master said, "When the music master Chih first entered on his
 office, the finish of the Kwan Tsu was magnificent;-how it filled
 the ears!"
   The Master said, "Ardent and yet not upright, stupid and yet not
 attentive; simple and yet not sincere:-such persons I do not
   The Master said, "Learn as if you could not reach your object, and
 were always fearing also lest you should lose it."
   The Master said, "How majestic was the manner in which Shun and Yu
 held possession of the empire, as if it were nothing to them!
   The Master said, "Great indeed was Yao as a sovereign! How
 majestic was he! It is only Heaven that is grand, and only Yao
 corresponded to it. How vast was his virtue! The people could find
 no name for it.
   "How majestic was he in the works which he accomplished! How
 glorious in the elegant regulations which he instituted!"
   Shun had five ministers, and the empire was well governed.
   King Wu said, "I have ten able ministers."
   Confucius said, "Is not the saying that talents are difficult to
 find, true? Only when the dynasties of T'ang and Yu met, were they
 more abundant than in this of Chau, yet there was a woman among
 them. The able ministers were no more than nine men.
   "King Wan possessed two of the three parts of the empire, and with
 those he served the dynasty of Yin. The virtue of the house of Chau
 may be said to have reached the highest point indeed."
   The Master said, "I can find no flaw in the character of Yu. He used
 himself coarse food and drink, but displayed the utmost filial piety
 towards the spirits. His ordinary garments were poor, but he displayed
 the utmost elegance in his sacrificial cap and apron. He lived in a
 low, mean house, but expended all his strength on the ditches and
 water channels. I can find nothing like a flaw in Yu."
   The subjects of which the Master seldom spoke were-profitableness,
 and also the appointments of Heaven, and perfect virtue.
   A man of the village of Ta-hsiang said, "Great indeed is the
 philosopher K'ung! His learning is extensive, and yet he does not
 render his name famous by any particular thing."
   The Master heard the observation, and said to his disciples, "What
 shall I practice? Shall I practice charioteering, or shall I
 practice archery? I will practice charioteering."
   The Master said, "The linen cap is that prescribed by the rules of
 ceremony, but now a silk one is worn. It is economical, and I follow
 the common practice.
   "The rules of ceremony prescribe the bowing below the hall, but
 now the practice is to bow only after ascending it. That is
 arrogant. I continue to bow below the hall, though I oppose the common
   There were four things from which the Master was entirely free. He
 had no foregone conclusions, no arbitrary predeterminations, no
 obstinacy, and no egoism.
   The Master was put in fear in K'wang.
   He said, "After the death of King Wan, was not the cause of truth
 lodged here in me?
   "If Heaven had wished to let this cause of truth perish, then I, a
 future mortal! should not have got such a relation to that cause.
 While Heaven does not let the cause of truth perish, what can the
 people of K'wang do to me?"
   A high officer asked Tsze-kung, saying, "May we not say that your
 Master is a sage? How various is his ability!"
   Tsze-kung said, "Certainly Heaven has endowed him unlimitedly. He is
 about a sage. And, moreover, his ability is various."
   The Master heard of the conversation and said, "Does the high
 officer know me? When I was young, my condition was low, and I
 acquired my ability in many things, but they were mean matters. Must
 the superior man have such variety of ability? He does not need
 variety of ability. Lao said, "The Master said, 'Having no official
 employment, I acquired many arts.'"
   The Master said, "Am I indeed possessed of knowledge? I am not
 knowing. But if a mean person, who appears quite empty-like, ask
 anything of me, I set it forth from one end to the other, and
 exhaust it."
   The Master said, "The Fang bird does not come; the river sends forth
 no map:-it is all over with me!"
   When the Master saw a person in a mourning dress, or any one with
 the cap and upper and lower garments of full dress, or a blind person,
 on observing them approaching, though they were younger than
 himself, he would rise up, and if he had to pass by them, he would
 do so hastily.
   Yen Yuan, in admiration of the Master's doctrines, sighed and
 said, "I looked up to them, and they seemed to become more high; I
 tried to penetrate them, and they seemed to become more firm; I looked
 at them before me, and suddenly they seemed to be behind.
   "The Master, by orderly method, skillfully leads men on. He enlarged
 my mind with learning, and taught me the restraints of propriety.
   "When I wish to give over the study of his doctrines, I cannot do
 so, and having exerted all my ability, there seems something to
 stand right up before me; but though I wish to follow and lay hold
 of it, I really find no way to do so."
   The Master being very ill, Tsze-lu wished the disciples to act as
 ministers to him.
   During a remission of his illness, he said, "Long has the conduct of
 Yu been deceitful! By pretending to have ministers when I have them
 not, whom should I impose upon? Should I impose upon Heaven?
   "Moreover, than that I should die in the hands of ministers, is it
 not better that I should die in the hands of you, my disciples? And
 though I may not get a great burial, shall I die upon the road?"
   Tsze-kung said, "There is a beautiful gem here. Should I lay it up
 in a case and keep it? or should I seek for a good price and sell it?"
 The Master said, "Sell it! Sell it! But I would wait for one to
 offer the price."
   The Master was wishing to go and live among the nine wild tribes
 of the east.
   Some one said, "They are rude. How can you do such a thing?" The
 Master said, "If a superior man dwelt among them, what rudeness
 would there be?"
   The Master said, "I returned from Wei to Lu, and then the music
 was reformed, and the pieces in the Royal songs and Praise songs all
 found their proper places."
   The Master said, "Abroad, to serve the high ministers and nobles; at
 home, to serve one's father and elder brothers; in all duties to the
 dead, not to dare not to exert one's self; and not to be overcome of
 wine:-which one of these things do I attain to?"
   The Master standing by a stream, said, "It passes on just like this,
 not ceasing day or night!"
   The Master said, "I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves
   The Master said, "The prosecution of learning may be compared to
 what may happen in raising a mound. If there want but one basket of
 earth to complete the work, and I stop, the stopping is my own work.
 It may be compared to throwing down the earth on the level ground.
 Though but one basketful is thrown at a time, the advancing with it my
 own going forward."
   The Master said, "Never flagging when I set forth anything to
 him;-ah! that is Hui." The Master said of Yen Yuan, "Alas! I saw his
 constant advance. I never saw him stop in his progress."
   The Master said, "There are cases in which the blade springs, but
 the plant does not go on to flower! There are cases where it flowers
 but fruit is not subsequently produced!"
   The Master said, "A youth is to be regarded with respect. How do
 we know that his future will not be equal to our present? If he
 reach the age of forty or fifty, and has not made himself heard of,
 then indeed he will not be worth being regarded with respect."
   The Master said, "Can men refuse to assent to the words of strict
 admonition? But it is reforming the conduct because of them which is
 valuable. Can men refuse to be pleased with words of gentle advice?
 But it is unfolding their aim which is valuable. If a man be pleased
 with these words, but does not unfold their aim, and assents to those,
 but does not reform his conduct, I can really do nothing with him."
   The Master said, "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first
 principles. Have no friends not equal to yourself. When you have
 faults, do not fear to abandon them."
   The Master said, "The commander of the forces of a large state may
 be carried off, but the will of even a common man cannot be taken from
   The Master said, "Dressed himself in a tattered robe quilted with
 hemp, yet standing by the side of men dressed in furs, and not
 ashamed;-ah! it is Yu who is equal to this!
   "He dislikes none, he covets nothing;-what can he do but what is
   Tsze-lu kept continually repeating these words of the ode, when
 the Master said, "Those things are by no means sufficient to
 constitute perfect excellence."
   The Master said, "When the year becomes cold, then we know how the
 pine and the cypress are the last to lose their leaves."
   The Master said, "The wise are free from perplexities; the
 virtuous from anxiety; and the bold from fear."
   The Master said, "There are some with whom we may study in common,
 but we shall find them unable to go along with us to principles.
 Perhaps we may go on with them to principles, but we shall find them
 unable to get established in those along with us. Or if we may get
 so established along with them, we shall find them unable to weigh
 occurring events along with us."
   "How the flowers of the aspen-plum flutter and turn! Do I not
 think of you? But your house is distant."
   The Master said, "It is the want of thought about it. How is it
   Confucius, in his village, looked simple and sincere, and as if he
 were not able to speak.
   When he was in the prince's ancestral temple, or in the court, he
 spoke minutely on every point, but cautiously.
   When he was waiting at court, in speaking with the great officers of
 the lower grade, he spoke freely, but in a straightforward manner;
 in speaking with those of the higher grade, he did so blandly, but
   When the ruler was present, his manner displayed respectful
 uneasiness; it was grave, but self-possessed.
   When the prince called him to employ him in the reception of a
 visitor, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to move
 forward with difficulty.
   He inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood,
 moving his left or right arm, as their position required, but
 keeping the skirts of his robe before and behind evenly adjusted.
   He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird.
   When the guest had retired, he would report to the prince, "The
 visitor is not turning round any more."
   When he entered the palace gate, he seemed to bend his body, as if
 it were not sufficient to admit him.
   When he was standing, he did not occupy the middle of the gateway;
 when he passed in or out, he did not tread upon the threshold.
   When he was passing the vacant place of the prince, his
 countenance appeared to change, and his legs to bend under him, and
 his words came as if he hardly had breath to utter them.
   He ascended the reception hall, holding up his robe with both his
 hands, and his body bent; holding in his breath also, as if he dared
 not breathe.
   When he came out from the audience, as soon as he had descended
 one step, he began to relax his countenance, and had a satisfied look.
 When he had got the bottom of the steps, he advanced rapidly to his
 place, with his arms like wings, and on occupying it, his manner still
 showed respectful uneasiness.
   When he was carrying the scepter of his ruler, he seemed to bend his
 body, as if he were not able to bear its weight. He did not hold it
 higher than the position of the hands in making a bow, nor lower
 than their position in giving anything to another. His countenance
 seemed to change, and look apprehensive, and he dragged his feet along
 as if they were held by something to the ground.
   In presenting the presents with which he was charged, he wore a
 placid appearance.
   At his private audience, he looked highly pleased.
   The superior man did not use a deep purple, or a puce color, in
 the ornaments of his dress.
   Even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red or reddish
   In warm weather, he had a single garment either of coarse or fine
 texture, but he wore it displayed over an inner garment.
   Over lamb's fur he wore a garment of black; over fawn's fur one of
 white; and over fox's fur one of yellow.
   The fur robe of his undress was long, with the right sleeve short.
   He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his body.
   When staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or the badger.
   When he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages of the girdle.
   His undergarment, except when it was required to be of the curtain
 shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and wide below.
   He did not wear lamb's fur or a black cap on a visit of condolence.
   On the first day of the month he put on his court robes, and
 presented himself at court.
   When fasting, he thought it necessary to have his clothes brightly
 clean and made of linen cloth.
   When fasting, he thought it necessary to change his food, and also
 to change the place where he commonly sat in the apartment.
   He did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned, nor to have
 his mince meat cut quite small.
   He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and
 turned sour, nor fish or flesh which was gone. He did not eat what was
 discolored, or what was of a bad flavor, nor anything which was
 ill-cooked, or was not in season.
   He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor what was
 served without its proper sauce.
   Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not allow
 what he took to exceed the due proportion for the rice. It was only in
 wine that he laid down no limit for himself, but he did not allow
 himself to be confused by it.
   He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market.
   He was never without ginger when he ate. He did not eat much.
   When he had been assisting at the prince's sacrifice, he did not
 keep the flesh which he received overnight. The flesh of his family
 sacrifice he did not keep over three days. If kept over three days,
 people could not eat it.
   When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did not speak.
   Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he
 would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave, respectful air.
   If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.
   When the villagers were drinking together, upon those who carried
 staffs going out, he also went out immediately after.
   When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive away
 pestilential influences, he put on his court robes and stood on the
 eastern steps.
   When he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in another
 state, he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away.
   Chi K'ang having sent him a present of physic, he bowed and received
 it, saying, "I do not know it. I dare not taste it."
   The stable being burned down, when he was at court, on his return he
 said, "Has any man been hurt?" He did not ask about the horses.
   When the he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give it
 away to others. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed meat,
 he would have it cooked, and offer it to the spirits of his ancestors.
 When the prince sent him a gift of a living animal, he would keep it
   When he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the
 entertainment, the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted everything.
   When he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he had his head to
 the east, made his court robes be spread over him, and drew his girdle
 across them.
   When the prince's order called him, without waiting for his carriage
 to be yoked, he went at once.
   When he entered the ancestral temple of the state, he asked about
   When any of his friends died, if he had no relations offices, he
 would say, "I will bury him."
   When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a carriage
 and horses, he did not bow.
   The only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of
   In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not put on any
 formal deportment.
   When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an
 acquaintance, he would change countenance; when he saw any one wearing
 the cap of full dress, or a blind person, though he might be in his
 undress, he would salute him in a ceremonious manner.
   To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his
 carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of
   When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of
 provisions set before him, he would change countenance and rise up.
   On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change
   When he was about to mount his carriage, he would stand straight,
 holding the cord.
   When he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head quite round,
 he did not talk hastily, he did not point with his hands.
   Seeing the countenance, it instantly rises. It flies round, and by
 and by settles.
   The Master said, "There is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge. At
 its season! At its season!" Tsze-lu made a motion to it. Thrice it
 smelt him and then rose.
   The Master said, "The men of former times in the matters of
 ceremonies and music were rustics, it is said, while the men of
 these latter times, in ceremonies and music, are accomplished
   "If I have occasion to use those things, I follow the men of
 former times."
   The Master said, "Of those who were with me in Ch'an and Ts'ai,
 there are none to be found to enter my door."
   Distinguished for their virtuous principles and practice, there were
 Yen Yuan, Min Tsze-ch'ien, Zan Po-niu, and Chung-kung; for their
 ability in speech, Tsai Wo and Tsze-kung; for their administrative
 talents, Zan Yu and Chi Lu; for their literary acquirements, Tsze-yu
 and Tsze-hsia.
   The Master said, "Hui gives me no assistance. There is nothing
 that I say in which he does not delight."
   The Master said, "Filial indeed is Min Tsze-ch'ien! Other people say
 nothing of him different from the report of his parents and brothers."
   Nan Yung was frequently repeating the lines about a white scepter
 stone. Confucius gave him the daughter of his elder brother to wife.
   Chi K'ang asked which of the disciples loved to learn. Confucius
 replied to him, "There was Yen Hui; he loved to learn. Unfortunately
 his appointed time was short, and he died. Now there is no one who
 loves to learn, as he did."
   When Yen Yuan died, Yen Lu begged the carriage of the Master to sell
 and get an outer shell for his son's coffin.
   The Master said, "Every one calls his son his son, whether he has
 talents or has not talents. There was Li; when he died, he had a
 coffin but no outer shell. I would not walk on foot to get a shell for
 him, because, having followed in the rear of the great officers, it
 was not proper that I should walk on foot."
   When Yen Yuan died, the Master said, "Alas! Heaven is destroying me!
 Heaven is destroying me!"
   When Yen Yuan died, the Master bewailed him exceedingly, and the
 disciples who were with him said, "Master, your grief is excessive!"
   "Is it excessive?" said he. "If I am not to mourn bitterly for
 this man, for whom should I mourn?"
   When Yen Yuan died, the disciples wished to give him a great
 funeral, and the Master said, "You may not do so."
   The disciples did bury him in great style.
   The Master said, "Hui behaved towards me as his father. I have not
 been able to treat him as my son. The fault is not mine; it belongs to
 you, O disciples."
   Chi Lu asked about serving the spirits of the dead. The Master said,
 "While you are not able to serve men, how can you serve their
 spirits?" Chi Lu added, "I venture to ask about death?" He was
 answered, "While you do not know life, how can you know about death?"
   The disciple Min was standing by his side, looking bland and
 precise; Tsze-lu, looking bold and soldierly; Zan Yu and Tsze-kung,
 with a free and straightforward manner. The Master was pleased.
   He said, "Yu, there!-he will not die a natural death."
   Some parties in Lu were going to take down and rebuild the Long
   Min Tsze-ch'ien said, "Suppose it were to be repaired after its
 old style;-why must it be altered and made anew?"
   The Master said, "This man seldom speaks; when he does, he is sure
 to hit the point."
   The Master said, "What has the lute of Yu to do in my door?"
   The other disciples began not to respect Tszelu. The Master said,
 "Yu has ascended to the hall, though he has not yet passed into the
 inner apartments."
   Tsze-kung asked which of the two, Shih or Shang, was the superior.
 The Master said, "Shih goes beyond the due mean, and Shang does not
 come up to it."
   "Then," said Tsze-kung, "the superiority is with Shih, I suppose."
   The Master said, "To go beyond is as wrong as to fall short."
   The head of the Chi family was richer than the duke of Chau had
 been, and yet Ch'iu collected his imposts for him, and increased his
   The Master said, "He is no disciple of mine. My little children,
 beat the drum and assail him."
   Ch'ai is simple. Shan is dull. Shih is specious. Yu is coarse.
   The Master said, "There is Hui! He has nearly attained to perfect
 virtue. He is often in want.
   "Ts'ze does not acquiesce in the appointments of Heaven, and his
 goods are increased by him. Yet his judgments are often correct."
   Tsze-chang asked what were the characteristics of the good man.
 The Master said, "He does not tread in the footsteps of others, but
 moreover, he does not enter the chamber of the sage."
   The Master said, "If, because a man's discourse appears solid and
 sincere, we allow him to be a good man, is he really a superior man?
 or is his gravity only in appearance?"
   Tsze-lu asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what
 he heard. The Master said, "There are your father and elder brothers
 to be consulted;-why should you act on that principle of immediately
 carrying into practice what you hear?" Zan Yu asked the same,
 whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and
 the Master answered, "Immediately carry into practice what you
 hear." Kung-hsi Hwa said, "Yu asked whether he should carry
 immediately into practice what he heard, and you said, 'There are your
 father and elder brothers to be consulted.' Ch'iu asked whether he
 should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and you said,
 'Carry it immediately into practice.' I, Ch'ih, am perplexed, and
 venture to ask you for an explanation." The Master said, "Ch'iu is
 retiring and slow; therefore I urged him forward. Yu has more than his
 own share of energy; therefore I kept him back."
   The Master was put in fear in K'wang and Yen Yuan fell behind. The
 Master, on his rejoining him, said, "I thought you had died." Hui
 replied, "While you were alive, how should I presume to die?"
   Chi Tsze-zan asked whether Chung Yu and Zan Ch'iu could be called
 great ministers.
   The Master said, "I thought you would ask about some extraordinary
 individuals, and you only ask about Yu and Ch'iu!
   "What is called a great minister, is one who serves his prince
 according to what is right, and when he finds he cannot do so,
   "Now, as to Yu and Ch'iu, they may be called ordinary ministers."
   Tsze-zan said, "Then they will always follow their chief;-win they?"
   The Master said, "In an act of parricide or regicide, they would not
 follow him."
   Tsze-lu got Tsze-kao appointed governor of Pi.
   The Master said, "You are injuring a man's son."
   Tsze-lu said, "There are, there, common people and officers; there
 are the altars of the spirits of the land and grain. Why must one read
 books before he can be considered to have learned?"
   The Master said, "It is on this account that I hate your
 glib-tongued people."
   Tsze-lu, Tsang Hsi, Zan Yu, and Kunghsi Hwa were sitting by the
   He said to them, "Though I am a day or so older than you, do not
 think of that.
   "From day to day you are saying, 'We are not known.' If some ruler
 were to know you, what would you like to do?"
   Tsze-lu hastily and lightly replied, "Suppose the case of a state of
 ten thousand chariots; let it be straitened between other large
 cities; let it be suffering from invading armies; and to this let
 there be added a famine in corn and in all vegetables:-if I were
 intrusted with the government of it, in three years' time I could make
 the people to be bold, and to recognize the rules of righteous
 conduct." The Master smiled at him.
   Turning to Yen Yu, he said, "Ch'iu, what are your wishes?" Ch'iu
 replied, "Suppose a state of sixty or seventy li square, or one of
 fifty or sixty, and let me have the government of it;-in three
 years' time, I could make plenty to abound among the people. As to
 teaching them the principles of propriety, and music, I must wait
 for the rise of a superior man to do that."
   "What are your wishes, Ch'ih," said the Master next to Kung-hsi Hwa.
 Ch'ih replied, "I do not say that my ability extends to these
 things, but I should wish to learn them. At the services of the
 ancestral temple, and at the audiences of the princes with the
 sovereign, I should like, dressed in the dark square-made robe and the
 black linen cap, to act as a small assistant."
   Last of all, the Master asked Tsang Hsi, "Tien, what are your
 wishes?" Tien, pausing as he was playing on his lute, while it was yet
 twanging, laid the instrument aside, and "My wishes," he said, "are
 different from the cherished purposes of these three gentlemen." "What
 harm is there in that?" said the Master; "do you also, as well as
 they, speak out your wishes." Tien then said, "In this, the last month
 of spring, with the dress of the season all complete, along with
 five or six young men who have assumed the cap, and six or seven boys,
 I would wash in the I, enjoy the breeze among the rain altars, and
 return home singing." The Master heaved a sigh and said, "I give my
 approval to Tien."
   The three others having gone out, Tsang Hsi remained behind, and
 said, "What do you think of the words of these three friends?" The
 Master replied, "They simply told each one his wishes."
   Hsi pursued, "Master, why did you smile at Yu?"
   He was answered, "The management of a state demands the rules of
 propriety. His words were not humble; therefore I smiled at him."
   Hsi again said, "But was it not a state which Ch'iu proposed for
 himself?" The reply was, "Yes; did you ever see a territory of sixty
 or seventy li or one of fifty or sixty, which was not a state?"
   Once more, Hsi inquired, "And was it not a state which Ch'ih
 proposed for himself?" The Master again replied, "Yes; who but princes
 have to do with ancestral temples, and with audiences but the
 sovereign? If Ch'ih were to be a small assistant in these services,
 who could be a great one?
   Yen Yuan asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "To subdue
 one's self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. If a man can
 for one day subdue himself and return to propriety, an under heaven
 will ascribe perfect virtue to him. Is the practice of perfect
 virtue from a man himself, or is it from others?"
   Yen Yuan said, "I beg to ask the steps of that process." The
 Master replied, "Look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not
 to what is contrary to propriety; speak not what is contrary to
 propriety; make no movement which is contrary to propriety." Yen
 Yuan then said, "Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor, I
 will make it my business to practice this lesson."
   Chung-kung asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "It is, when
 you go abroad, to behave to every one as if you were receiving a great
 guest; to employ the people as if you were assisting at a great
 sacrifice; not to do to others as you would not wish done to yourself;
 to have no murmuring against you in the country, and none in the
 family." Chung-kung said, "Though I am deficient in intelligence and
 vigor, I will make it my business to practice this lesson."
   Sze-ma Niu asked about perfect virtue.
   The Master said, "The man of perfect virtue is cautious and slow
 in his speech."
   "Cautious and slow in his speech!" said Niu;-"is this what is
 meant by perfect virtue?" The Master said, "When a man feels the
 difficulty of doing, can he be other than cautious and slow in
   Sze-ma Niu asked about the superior man. The Master said, "The
 superior man has neither anxiety nor fear."
   "Being without anxiety or fear!" said Nui;"does this constitute what
 we call the superior man?"
   The Master said, "When internal examination discovers nothing wrong,
 what is there to be anxious about, what is there to fear?"
   Sze-ma Niu, full of anxiety, said, "Other men all have their
 brothers, I only have not."
   Tsze-hsia said to him, "There is the following saying which I have
 heard-'Death and life have their determined appointment; riches and
 honors depend upon Heaven.'
   "Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own
 conduct, and let him be respectful to others and observant of
 propriety:-then all within the four seas will be his brothers. What
 has the superior man to do with being distressed because he has no
   Tsze-chang asked what constituted intelligence. The Master said, "He
 with whom neither slander that gradually soaks into the mind, nor
 statements that startle like a wound in the flesh, are successful
 may be called intelligent indeed. Yea, he with whom neither soaking
 slander, nor startling statements, are successful, may be called
   Tsze-kung asked about government. The Master said, "The requisites
 of government are that there be sufficiency of food, sufficiency of
 military equipment, and the confidence of the people in their ruler."
   Tsze-kung said, "If it cannot be helped, and one of these must be
 dispensed with, which of the three should be foregone first?" "The
 military equipment," said the Master.
   Tsze-kung again asked, "If it cannot be helped, and one of the
 remaining two must be dispensed with, which of them should be
 foregone?" The Master answered, "Part with the food. From of old,
 death has been the lot of an men; but if the people have no faith in
 their rulers, there is no standing for the state."
   Chi Tsze-ch'ang said, "In a superior man it is only the
 substantial qualities which are wanted;-why should we seek for
 ornamental accomplishments?"
   Tsze-kung said, "Alas! Your words, sir, show you to be a superior
 man, but four horses cannot overtake the tongue. Ornament is as
 substance; substance is as ornament. The hide of a tiger or a
 leopard stripped of its hair, is like the hide of a dog or a goat
 stripped of its hair."
   The Duke Ai inquired of Yu Zo, saying, "The year is one of scarcity,
 and the returns for expenditure are not sufficient;-what is to be
   Yu Zo replied to him, "Why not simply tithe the people?"
   "With two tenths, said the duke, "I find it not enough;-how could
 I do with that system of one tenth?"
   Yu Zo answered, "If the people have plenty, their prince will not be
 left to want alone. If the people are in want, their prince cannot
 enjoy plenty alone."
   Tsze-chang having asked how virtue was to be exalted, and
 delusions to be discovered, the Master said, "Hold faithfulness and
 sincerity as first principles, and be moving continually to what is
 right,-this is the way to exalt one's virtue.
   "You love a man and wish him to live; you hate him and wish him to
 die. Having wished him to live, you also wish him to die. This is a
 case of delusion. 'It may not be on account of her being rich, yet you
 come to make a difference.'"
   The Duke Ching, of Ch'i, asked Confucius about government. Confucius
 replied, "There is government, when the prince is prince, and the
 minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son."
   "Good!" said the duke; "if, indeed, the prince be not prince, the
 not minister, the father not father, and the son not son, although I
 have my revenue, can I enjoy it?"
   The Master said, "Ah! it is Yu, who could with half a word settle
   Tsze-lu never slept over a promise.
   The Master said, "In hearing litigations, I am like any other
 body. What is necessary, however, is to cause the people to have no
   Tsze-chang asked about government. The Master said, "The art of
 governing is to keep its affairs before the mind without weariness,
 and to practice them with undeviating consistency."
   The Master said, "By extensively studying all learning, and
 keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety, one may
 thus likewise not err from what is right."
   The Master said, "The superior man seeks to perfect the admirable
 qualities of men, and does not seek to perfect their bad qualities.
 The mean man does the opposite of this."
   Chi K'ang asked Confucius about government. Confucius replied, "To
 govern means to rectify. If you lead on the people with correctness,
 who will dare not to be correct?"
   Chi K'ang, distressed about the number of thieves in the state,
 inquired of Confucius how to do away with them. Confucius said, "If
 you, sir, were not covetous, although you should reward them to do it,
 they would not steal."
   Chi K'ang asked Confucius about government, saying, "What do you say
 to killing the unprincipled for the good of the principled?" Confucius
 replied, "Sir, in carrying on your government, why should you use
 killing at all? Let your evinced desires be for what is good, and
 the people will be good. The relation between superiors and
 inferiors is like that between the wind and the grass. The grass
 must bend, when the wind blows across it."
   Tsze-chang asked, "What must the officer be, who may be said to be
   The Master said, "What is it you call being distinguished?"
   Tsze-chang replied, "It is to be heard of through the state, to be
 heard of throughout his clan."
   The Master said, "That is notoriety, not distinction.
   "Now the man of distinction is solid and straightforward, and
 loves righteousness. He examines people's words, and looks at their
 countenances. He is anxious to humble himself to others. Such a man
 will be distinguished in the country; he will be distinguished in
 his clan.
   "As to the man of notoriety, he assumes the appearance of virtue,
 but his actions are opposed to it, and he rests in this character
 without any doubts about himself. Such a man will be heard of in the
 country; he will be heard of in the clan."
   Fan Ch'ih rambling with the Master under the trees about the rain
 altars, said, "I venture to ask how to exalt virtue, to correct
 cherished evil, and to discover delusions."
   The Master said, "Truly a good question!
   "If doing what is to be done be made the first business, and success
 a secondary consideration:-is not this the way to exalt virtue? To
 assail one's own wickedness and not assail that of others;-is not this
 the way to correct cherished evil? For a morning's anger to
 disregard one's own life, and involve that of his parents;-is not this
 a case of delusion?"
   Fan Ch'ih asked about benevolence. The Master said, "It is to love
 all men." He asked about knowledge. The Master said, "It is to know
 all men."
   Fan Ch'ih did not immediately understand these answers.
   The Master said, "Employ the upright and put aside all the
 crooked; in this way the crooked can be made to be upright."
   Fan Ch'ih retired, and, seeing Tsze-hsia, he said to him, "A
 Little while ago, I had an interview with our Master, and asked him
 about knowledge. He said, 'Employ the upright, and put aside all the
 crooked;-in this way, the crooked will be made to be upright.' What
 did he mean?"
   Tsze-hsia said, "Truly rich is his saying!
   "Shun, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among all
 the people, and employed Kai-yao-on which all who were devoid of
 virtue disappeared. T'ang, being in possession of the kingdom,
 selected from among all the people, and employed I Yin-and an who were
 devoid of virtue disappeared."
   Tsze-kung asked about friendship. The Master said, "Faithfully
 admonish your friend, and skillfully lead him on. If you find him
 impracticable, stop. Do not disgrace yourself."
   The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man on grounds of
 culture meets with his friends, and by friendship helps his virtue."
   Tsze-lu asked about government. The Master said, "Go before the
 people with your example, and be laborious in their affairs."
   He requested further instruction, and was answered, "Be not weary in
 these things."
   Chung-kung, being chief minister to the head of the Chi family,
 asked about government. The Master said, "Employ first the services of
 your various officers, pardon small faults, and raise to office men of
 virtue and talents."
   Chung-kung said, "How shall I know the men of virtue and talent,
 so that I may raise them to office?" He was answered, "Raise to office
 those whom you know. As to those whom you do not know, will others
 neglect them?"
   Tsze-lu said, "The ruler of Wei has been waiting for you, in order
 with you to administer the government. What will you consider the
 first thing to be done?"
   The Master replied, "What is necessary is to rectify names."
   "So! indeed!" said Tsze-lu. "You are wide of the mark! Why must
 there be such rectification?"
   The Master said, "How uncultivated you are, Yu! A superior man, in
 regard to what he does not know, shows a cautious reserve.
   "If names be not correct, language is not in accordance with the
 truth of things. If language be not in accordance with the truth of
 things, affairs cannot be carried on to success.
   "When affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music
 do not flourish. When proprieties and music do not flourish,
 punishments will not be properly awarded. When punishments are not
 properly awarded, the people do not know how to move hand or foot.
   "Therefore a superior man considers it necessary that the names he
 uses may be spoken appropriately, and also that what he speaks may
 be carried out appropriately. What the superior man requires is just
 that in his words there may be nothing incorrect."
   Fan Ch'ih requested to be taught husbandry. The Master said, "I am
 not so good for that as an old husbandman." He requested also to be
 taught gardening, and was answered, "I am not so good for that as an
 old gardener."
   Fan Ch'ih having gone out, the Master said, "A small man, indeed, is
 Fan Hsu! If a superior man love propriety, the people will not dare
 not to be reverent. If he love righteousness, the people will not dare
 not to submit to his example. If he love good faith, the people will
 not dare not to be sincere. Now, when these things obtain, the
 people from all quarters will come to him, bearing their children on
 their backs; what need has he of a knowledge of husbandry?"
   The Master said, "Though a man may be able to recite the three
 hundred odes, yet if, when intrusted with a governmental charge, he
 knows not how to act, or if, when sent to any quarter on a mission, he
 cannot give his replies unassisted, notwithstanding the extent of
 his learning, of what practical use is it?"
   The Master said, "When a prince's personal conduct is correct, his
 government is effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal
 conduct is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be
   The Master said, "The governments of Lu and Wei are brothers."
   The Master said of Ching, a scion of the ducal family of Wei, that
 he knew the economy of a family well. When he began to have means,
 he said, "Ha! here is a collection-!" When they were a little
 increased, he said, "Ha! this is complete!" When he had become rich,
 he said, "Ha! this is admirable!"
   When the Master went to Weil Zan Yu acted as driver of his carriage.
   The Master observed, "How numerous are the people!"
   Yu said, "Since they are thus numerous, what more shall be done
 for them?" "Enrich them, was the reply.
   "And when they have been enriched, what more shall be done?" The
 Master said, "Teach them."
   The Master said, "If there were any of the princes who would
 employ me, in the course of twelve months, I should have done
 something considerable. In three years, the government would be
   The Master said, "'If good men were to govern a country in
 succession for a hundred years, they would be able to transform the
 violently bad, and dispense with capital punishments.' True indeed
 is this saying!"
   The Master said, "If a truly royal ruler were to arise, it would
 stir require a generation, and then virtue would prevail."
   The Master said, "If a minister make his own conduct correct, what
 difficulty will he have in assisting in government? If he cannot
 rectify himself, what has he to do with rectifying others?"
   The disciple Zan returning from the court, the Master said to him,
 "How are you so late?" He replied, "We had government business." The
 Master said, "It must have been family affairs. If there had been
 government business, though I am not now in office, I should have been
 consulted about it."
   The Duke Ting asked whether there was a single sentence which
 could make a country prosperous. Confucius replied, "Such an effect
 cannot be expected from one sentence.
   "There is a saying, however, which people have -'To be a prince is
 difficult; to be a minister is not easy.'
   "If a ruler knows this,-the difficulty of being a prince,-may
 there not be expected from this one sentence the prosperity of his
   The duke then said, "Is there a single sentence which can ruin a
 country?" Confucius replied, "Such an effect as that cannot be
 expected from one sentence. There is, however, the saying which people
 have-'I have no pleasure in being a prince, but only in that no one
 can offer any opposition to what I say!'
   "If a ruler's words be good, is it not also good that no one
 oppose them? But if they are not good, and no one opposes them, may
 there not be expected from this one sentence the ruin of his country?"
   The Duke of Sheh asked about government.
   The Master said, "Good government obtains when those who are near
 are made happy, and those who are far off are attracted."
   Tsze-hsia! being governor of Chu-fu, asked about government. The
 Master said, "Do not be desirous to have things done quickly; do not
 look at small advantages. Desire to have things done quickly
 prevents their being done thoroughly. Looking at small advantages
 prevents great affairs from being accomplished."
   The Duke of Sheh informed Confucius, saying, "Among us here there
 are those who may be styled upright in their conduct. If their
 father have stolen a sheep, they will bear witness to the fact."
   Confucius said, "Among us, in our part of the country, those who are
 upright are different from this. The father conceals the misconduct of
 the son, and the son conceals the misconduct of the father.
 Uprightness is to be found in this."
   Fan Ch'ih asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "It is, in
 retirement, to be sedately grave; in the management of business, to be
 reverently attentive; in intercourse with others, to be strictly
 sincere. Though a man go among rude, uncultivated tribes, these
 qualities may not be neglected."
   Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What qualities must a man possess to
 entitle him to be called an officer? The Master said, "He who in his
 conduct of himself maintains a sense of shame, and when sent to any
 quarter will not disgrace his prince's commission, deserves to be
 called an officer."
   Tsze-kung pursued, "I venture to ask who may be placed in the next
 lower rank?" And he was told, "He whom the circle of his relatives
 pronounce to be filial, whom his fellow villagers and neighbors
 pronounce to be fraternal."
   Again the disciple asked, "I venture to ask about the class still
 next in order." The Master said, "They are determined to be sincere in
 what they say, and to carry out what they do. They are obstinate
 little men. Yet perhaps they may make the next class."
   Tsze-kung finally inquired, "Of what sort are those of the present
 day, who engage in government?" The Master said "Pooh! they are so
 many pecks and hampers, not worth being taken into account."
   The Master said, "Since I cannot get men pursuing the due medium, to
 whom I might communicate my instructions, I must find the ardent and
 the cautiously-decided. The ardent will advance and lay hold of truth;
 the cautiously-decided will keep themselves from what is wrong."
   The Master said, "The people of the south have a saying -'A man
 without constancy cannot be either a wizard or a doctor.' Good!
   "Inconstant in his virtue, he will be visited with disgrace."
   The Master said, "This arises simply from not attending to the
   The Master said, "The superior man is affable, but not adulatory;
 the mean man is adulatory, but not affable."
   Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What do you say of a man who is loved by
 all the people of his neighborhood?" The Master replied, "We may not
 for that accord our approval of him." "And what do you say of him
 who is hated by all the people of his neighborhood?" The Master
 said, "We may not for that conclude that he is bad. It is better
 than either of these cases that the good in the neighborhood love him,
 and the bad hate him."
   The Master said, "The superior man is easy to serve and difficult to
 please. If you try to please him in any way which is not accordant
 with right, he will not be pleased. But in his employment of men, he
 uses them according to their capacity. The mean man is difficult to
 serve, and easy to please. If you try to please him, though it be in a
 way which is not accordant with right, he may be pleased. But in his
 employment of men, he wishes them to be equal to everything."
   The Master said, "The superior man has a dignified ease without
 pride. The mean man has pride without a dignified ease."
   The Master said, "The firm, the enduring, the simple, and the modest
 are near to virtue."
   Tsze-lu asked, saying, "What qualities must a man possess to entitle
 him to be called a scholar?" The Master said, "He must be
 thus,-earnest, urgent, and bland:-among his friends, earnest and
 urgent; among his brethren, bland."
   The Master said, "Let a good man teach the people seven years, and
 they may then likewise be employed in war."
   The Master said, "To lead an uninstructed people to war, is to throw
 them away."
   Hsien asked what was shameful. The Master said, "When good
 government prevails in a state, to be thinking only of salary; and,
 when bad government prevails, to be thinking, in the same way, only of
 salary;-this is shameful."
   "When the love of superiority, boasting, resentments, and
 covetousness are repressed, this may be deemed perfect virtue."
   The Master said, "This may be regarded as the achievement of what is
 difficult. But I do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue."
   The Master said, "The scholar who cherishes the love of comfort is
 not fit to be deemed a scholar."
   The Master said, "When good government prevails in a state, language
 may be lofty and bold, and actions the same. When bad government
 prevails, the actions may be lofty and bold, but the language may be
 with some reserve."
   The Master said, "The virtuous will be sure to speak correctly,
 but those whose speech is good may not always be virtuous. Men of
 principle are sure to be bold, but those who are bold may not always
 be men of principle."
   Nan-kung Kwo, submitting an inquiry to Confucius, said, "I was
 skillful at archery, and Ao could move a boat along upon the land, but
 neither of them died a natural death. Yu and Chi personally wrought at
 the toils of husbandry, and they became possessors of the kingdom."
 The Master made no reply; but when Nan-kung Kwo went out, he said,
 "A superior man indeed is this! An esteemer of virtue indeed is this!"
   The Master said, "Superior men, and yet not always virtuous, there
 have been, alas! But there never has been a mean man, and, at the same
 time, virtuous."
   The Master said, "Can there be love which does not lead to
 strictness with its object? Can there be loyalty which does not lead
 to the instruction of its object?"
   The Master said, "In preparing the governmental notifications, P'i
 Shan first made the rough draft; Shi-shu examined and discussed its
 contents; Tsze-yu, the manager of foreign intercourse, then polished
 the style; and, finally, Tsze-ch'an of Tung-li gave it the proper
 elegance and finish."
   Some one asked about Tsze-ch'an. The Master said, "He was a kind
   He asked about Tsze-hsi. The Master said, "That man! That man!"
   He asked about Kwan Chung. "For him," said the Master, "the city
 of Pien, with three hundred families, was taken from the chief of
 the Po family, who did not utter a murmuring word, though, to the
 end of his life, he had only coarse rice to eat."
   The Master said, "To be poor without murmuring is difficult. To be
 rich without being proud is easy."
   The Master said, "Mang Kung-ch'o is more than fit to be chief
 officer in the families of Chao and Wei, but he is not fit to be great
 officer to either of the states Tang or Hsieh."
   Tsze-lu asked what constituted a COMPLETE man. The Master said,
 "Suppose a man with the knowledge of Tsang Wu-chung, the freedom
 from covetousness of Kung-ch'o, the bravery of Chwang of Pien, and the
 varied talents of Zan Ch'iu; add to these the accomplishments of the
 rules of propriety and music;-such a one might be reckoned a
   He then added, "But what is the necessity for a complete man of
 the present day to have all these things? The man, who in the view
 of gain, thinks of righteousness; who in the view of danger is
 prepared to give up his life; and who does not forget an old agreement
 however far back it extends:-such a man may be reckoned a COMPLETE
   The Master asked Kung-ming Chia about Kung-shu Wan, saying, "Is it
 true that your master speaks not, laughs not, and takes not?"
   Kung-ming Chia replied, "This has arisen from the reporters going
 beyond the truth.-My master speaks when it is the time to speak, and
 so men do not get tired of his speaking. He laughs when there is
 occasion to be joyful, and so men do not get tired of his laughing. He
 takes when it is consistent with righteousness to do so, and so men do
 not get tired of his taking." The Master said, "So! But is it so
 with him?"
   The Master said, "Tsang Wu-chung, keeping possession of Fang,
 asked of the duke of Lu to appoint a successor to him in his family.
 Although it may be said that he was not using force with his
 sovereign, I believe he was."
   The Master said, "The duke Wan of Tsin was crafty and not upright.
 The duke Hwan of Ch'i was upright and not crafty."
   Tsze-lu said, "The Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiu to be killed,
 when Shao Hu died, with his master, but Kwan Chung did not die. May
 not I say that he was wanting in virtue?"
   The Master said, "The Duke Hwan assembled all the princes
 together, and that not with weapons of war and chariots:-it was all
 through the influence of Kwan Chung. Whose beneficence was like his?
 Whose beneficence was like his?"
   Tsze-kung said, "Kwan Chung, I apprehend was wanting in virtue. When
 the Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiu to be killed, Kwan Chung was not
 able to die with him. Moreover, he became prime minister to Hwan."
   The Master said, "Kwan Chung acted as prime minister to the Duke
 Hwan made him leader of all the princes, and united and rectified
 the whole kingdom. Down to the present day, the people enjoy the gifts
 which he conferred. But for Kwan Chung, we should now be wearing our
 hair unbound, and the lappets of our coats buttoning on the left side.
   "Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and
 common women, who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch, no one
 knowing anything about them?"
   The great officer, Hsien, who had been family minister to Kung-shu
 Wan, ascended to the prince's court in company with Wan.
   The Master, having heard of it, said, "He deserved to be
 considered WAN (the accomplished)."
   The Master was speaking about the unprincipled course of the duke
 Ling of Weil when Ch'i K'ang said, "Since he is of such a character,
 how is it he does not lose his state?"
   Confucius said, "The Chung-shu Yu has the superintendence of his
 guests and of strangers; the litanist, T'o, has the management of
 his ancestral temple; and Wang-sun Chia has the direction of the
 army and forces:-with such officers as these, how should he lose his
   The Master said, "He who speaks without modesty will find it
 difficult to make his words good."
   Chan Ch'ang murdered the Duke Chien of Ch'i.
   Confucius bathed, went to court and informed the Duke Ai, saying,
 "Chan Hang has slain his sovereign. I beg that you will undertake to
 punish him."
   The duke said, "Inform the chiefs of the three families of it."
   Confucius retired, and said, "Following in the rear of the great
 officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter, and my prince
 says, "Inform the chiefs of the three families of it."
   He went to the chiefs, and informed them, but they would not act.
 Confucius then said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I
 did not dare not to represent such a matter."
   Tsze-lu asked how a ruler should be served. The Master said, "Do not
 impose on him, and, moreover, withstand him to his face."
   The Master said, "The progress of the superior man is upwards; the
 progress of the mean man is downwards."
   The Master said, "In ancient times, men learned with a view to their
 own improvement. Nowadays, men learn with a view to the approbation of
   Chu Po-yu sent a messenger with friendly inquiries to Confucius.
   Confucius sat with him, and questioned him. "What," said he! "is
 your master engaged in?" The messenger replied, "My master is
 anxious to make his faults few, but he has not yet succeeded." He then
 went out, and the Master said, "A messenger indeed! A messenger
   The Master said, "He who is not in any particular office has nothing
 to do with plans for the administration of its duties."
   The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man, in his thoughts, does
 not go out of his place."
   The Master said, "The superior man is modest in his speech, but
 exceeds in his actions."
   The Master said, "The way of the superior man is threefold, but I am
 not equal to it. Virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free
 from perplexities; bold, he is free from fear.
   Tsze-kung said, "Master, that is what you yourself say."
   Tsze-kung was in the habit of comparing men together. The Master
 said, "Tsze must have reached a high pitch of excellence! Now, I
 have not leisure for this."
   The Master said, "I will not be concerned at men's not knowing me; I
 will be concerned at my own want of ability."
   The Master said, "He who does not anticipate attempts to deceive
 him, nor think beforehand of his not being believed, and yet
 apprehends these things readily when they occur;-is he not a man of
 superior worth?"
   Wei-shang Mau said to Confucius, "Ch'iu, how is it that you keep
 roosting about? Is it not that you are an insinuating talker?
   Confucius said, "I do not dare to play the part of such a talker,
 but I hate obstinacy."
   The Master said, "A horse is called a ch'i, not because of its
 strength, but because of its other good qualities."
   Some one said, "What do you say concerning the principle that injury
 should be recompensed with kindness?"
   The Master said, "With what then will you recompense kindness?"
   "Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with
   The Master said, "Alas! there is no one that knows me."
   Tsze-kung said, "What do you mean by thus saying-that no one knows
 you?" The Master replied, "I do not murmur against Heaven. I do not
 grumble against men. My studies lie low, and my penetration rises
 high. But there is Heaven;-that knows me!"
   The Kung-po Liao, having slandered Tsze-lu to Chi-sun, Tsze-fu
 Ching-po informed Confucius of it, saying, "Our master is certainly
 being led astray by the Kung-po Liao, but I have still power enough
 left to cut Liao off, and expose his corpse in the market and in the
   The Master said, "If my principles are to advance, it is so ordered.
 If they are to fall to the ground, it is so ordered. What can the
 Kung-po Liao do where such ordering is concerned?"
   The Master said, "Some men of worth retire from the world. Some
 retire from particular states. Some retire because of disrespectful
 looks. Some retire because of contradictory language."
   The Master said, "Those who have done this are seven men."
   Tsze-lu happening to pass the night in Shih-man, the gatekeeper said
 to him, "Whom do you come from?" Tsze-lu said, "From Mr. K'ung." "It
 is he,-is it not?"-said the other, "who knows the impracticable nature
 of the times and yet will be doing in them."
   The Master was playing, one day, on a musical stone in Weil when a
 man carrying a straw basket passed door of the house where Confucius
 was, and said, "His heart is full who so beats the musical stone."
   A little while after, he added, "How contemptible is the
 one-ideaed obstinacy those sounds display! When one is taken no notice
 of, he has simply at once to give over his wish for public employment.
 'Deep water must be crossed with the clothes on; shallow water may
 be crossed with the clothes held up.'"
   The Master said, "How determined is he in his purpose! But this is
 not difficult!"
   Tsze-chang said, "What is meant when the Shu says that Kao-tsung,
 while observing the usual imperial mourning, was for three years
 without speaking?"
   The Master said, "Why must Kao-tsung be referred to as an example of
 this? The ancients all did so. When the sovereign died, the officers
 all attended to their several duties, taking instructions from the
 prime minister for three years."
   The Master said, "When rulers love to observe the rules of
 propriety, the people respond readily to the calls on them for
   Tsze-lu asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said,
 "The cultivation of himself in reverential carefulness." "And is
 this all?" said Tsze-lu. "He cultivates himself so as to give rest
 to others," was the reply. "And is this all?" again asked Tsze-lu. The
 Master said, "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the
 people. He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the
 people:-even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about this."
   Yuan Zang was squatting on his heels, and so waited the approach
 of the Master, who said to him, "In youth not humble as befits a
 junior; in manhood, doing nothing worthy of being handed down; and
 living on to old age:-this is to be a pest." With this he hit him on
 the shank with his staff.
   A youth of the village of Ch'ueh was employed by Confucius to
 carry the messages between him and his visitors. Some one asked
 about him, saying, "I suppose he has made great progress."
   The Master said, "I observe that he is fond of occupying the seat of
 a full-grown man; I observe that he walks shoulder to shoulder with
 his elders. He is not one who is seeking to make progress in learning.
 He wishes quickly to become a man."
   The Duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about tactics. Confucius
 replied, "I have heard all about sacrificial vessels, but I have not
 learned military matters." On this, he took his departure the next
   When he was in Chan, their provisions were exhausted, and his
 followers became so in that they were unable to rise.
   Tsze-lu, with evident dissatisfaction, said, "Has the superior man
 likewise to endure in this way?" The Master said, "The superior man
 may indeed have to endure want, but the mean man, when he is in
 want, gives way to unbridled license."
   The Master said, "Ts'ze, you think, I suppose, that I am one who
 learns many things and keeps them in memory?"
   Tsze-kung replied, "Yes,-but perhaps it is not so?"
   "No," was the answer; "I seek a unity all pervading."
   The Master said, "Yu I those who know virtue are few."
   The Master said, "May not Shun be instanced as having governed
 efficiently without exertion? What did he do? He did nothing but
 gravely and reverently occupy his royal seat."
   Tsze-chang asked how a man should conduct himself, so as to be
 everywhere appreciated.
   The Master said, "Let his words be sincere and truthful and his
 actions honorable and careful;-such conduct may be practiced among the
 rude tribes of the South or the North. If his words be not sincere and
 truthful and his actions not honorable and carefull will he, with such
 conduct, be appreciated, even in his neighborhood?
   "When he is standing, let him see those two things, as it were,
 fronting him. When he is in a carriage, let him see them attached to
 the yoke. Then may he subsequently carry them into practice."
   Tsze-chang wrote these counsels on the end of his sash.
   The Master said, "Truly straightforward was the historiographer
 Yu. When good government prevailed in his state, he was like an arrow.
 When bad government prevailed, he was like an arrow. A superior man
 indeed is Chu Po-yu! When good government prevails in his state, he is
 to be found in office. When bad government prevails, he can roll his
 principles up, and keep them in his breast."
   The Master said, "When a man may be spoken with, not to speak to him
 is to err in reference to the man. When a man may not be spoken
 with, to speak to him is to err in reference to our words. The wise
 err neither in regard to their man nor to their words."
   The Master said, "The determined scholar and the man of virtue
 will not seek to live at the expense of injuring their virtue. They
 will even sacrifice their lives to preserve their virtue complete."
   Tsze-kung asked about the practice of virtue. The Master said,
 "The mechanic, who wishes to do his work well, must first sharpen
 his tools. When you are living in any state, take service with the
 most worthy among its great officers, and make friends of the most
 virtuous among its scholars."
   Yen Yuan asked how the government of a country should be
   The Master said, "Follow the seasons of Hsia.
   "Ride in the state carriage of Yin.
   "Wear the ceremonial cap of Chau.
   "Let the music be the Shao with its pantomimes. Banish the songs
 of Chang, and keep far from specious talkers. The songs of Chang are
 licentious; specious talkers are dangerous."
   The Master said, "If a man take no thought about what is distant, he
 will find sorrow near at hand."
   The Master said, "It is all over! I have not seen one who loves
 virtue as he loves beauty."
   The Master said, "Was not Tsang Wan like one who had stolen his
 situation? He knew the virtue and the talents of Hui of Liu-hsia,
 and yet did not procure that he should stand with him in court."
   The Master said, "He who requires much from himself and little
 from others, will keep himself from being the object of resentment."
   The Master said, "When a man is not in the habit of saying-'What
 shall I think of this? What shall I think of this?' I can indeed do
 nothing with him!"
   The Master said, "When a number of people are together, for a
 whole day, without their conversation turning on righteousness, and
 when they are fond of carrying out the suggestions of a small
 shrewdness;-theirs is indeed a hard case."
   The Master said, "The superior man in everything considers
 righteousness to be essential. He performs it according to the rules
 of propriety. He brings it forth in humility. He completes it with
 sincerity. This is indeed a superior man."
   The Master said, "The superior man is distressed by his want of
 ability. He is not distressed by men's not knowing him."
   The Master said, "The superior man dislikes the thought of his
 name not being mentioned after his death."
   The Master said, "What the superior man seeks, is in himself. What
 the mean man seeks, is in others."
   The Master said, "The superior man is dignified, but does not
 wrangle. He is sociable, but not a partisan."
   The Master said, "The superior man does not promote a man simply
 on account of his words, nor does he put aside good words because of
 the man."
   Tsze-kung asked, saying, "Is there one word which may serve as a
 rule of practice for all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not
 RECIPROCITY such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not
 do to others."
   The Master said, "In my dealings with men, whose evil do I blame,
 whose goodness do I praise, beyond what is proper? If I do sometimes
 exceed in praise, there must be ground for it in my examination of the
   "This people supplied the ground why the three dynasties pursued the
 path of straightforwardness."
   The Master said, "Even in my early days, a historiographer would
 leave a blank in his text, and he who had a horse would lend him to
 another to ride. Now, alas! there are no such things."
   The Master said, "Specious words confound virtue. Want of
 forbearance in small matters confounds great plans."
   The Master said, "When the multitude hate a man, it is necessary
 to examine into the case. When the multitude like a man, it is
 necessary to examine into the case."
   The Master said, "A man can enlarge the principles which he follows;
 those principles do not enlarge the man."
   The Master said, "To have faults and not to reform them,-this,
 indeed, should be pronounced having faults."
   The Master said, "I have been the whole day without eating, and
 the whole night without sleeping:-occupied with thinking. It was of no
 use. better plan is to learn."
   The Master said, "The object of the superior man is truth. Food is
 not his object. There is plowing;-even in that there is sometimes
 want. So with learning;-emolument may be found in it. The superior man
 is anxious lest he should not get truth; he is not anxious lest
 poverty should come upon him."
   The Master said, "When a man's knowledge is sufficient to attain,
 and his virtue is not sufficient to enable him to hold, whatever he
 may have gained, he will lose again.
   "When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue
 enough to hold fast, if he cannot govern with dignity, the people will
 not respect him.
   "When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue
 enough to hold fast; when he governs also with dignity, yet if he
 try to move the people contrary to the rules of propriety:-full
 excellence is not reached."
   The Master said, "The superior man cannot be known in little
 matters; but he may be intrusted with great concerns. The small man
 may not be intrusted with great concerns, but he may be known in
 little matters."
   The Master said, "Virtue is more to man than either water or fire. I
 have seen men die from treading on water and fire, but I have never
 seen a man die from treading the course of virtue."
   The Master said, "Let every man consider virtue as what devolves
 on himself. He may not yield the performance of it even to his
   The Master said, "The superior man is correctly firm, and not firm
   The Master said, "A minister, in serving his prince, reverently
 discharges his duties, and makes his emolument a secondary
   The Master said, "In teaching there should be no distinction of
   The Master said, "Those whose courses are different cannot lay plans
 for one another."
   The Master said, "In language it is simply required that it convey
 the meaning."
   The music master, Mien, having called upon him, when they came to
 the steps, the Master said, "Here are the steps." When they came to
 the mat for the guest to sit upon, he said, "Here is the mat." When
 all were seated, the Master informed him, saying, "So and so is
 here; so and so is here."
   The music master, Mien, having gone out, Tsze-chang asked, saying.
 "Is it the rule to tell those things to the music master?"
   The Master said, "Yes. This is certainly the rule for those who lead
 the blind."
   The head of the Chi family was going to attack Chwan-yu.
   Zan Yu and Chi-lu had an interview with Confucius, and said, "Our
 chief, Chil is going to commence operations against Chwan-yu."
   Confucius said, "Ch'iu, is it not you who are in fault here?
   "Now, in regard to Chwan-yu, long ago, a former king appointed its
 ruler to preside over the sacrifices to the eastern Mang; moreover, it
 is in the midst of the territory of our state; and its ruler is a
 minister in direct connection with the sovereign: What has your
 chief to do with attacking it?"
   Zan Yu said, "Our master wishes the thing; neither of us two
 ministers wishes it."
   Confucius said, "Ch'iu, there are the words of Chau Zan, -'When he
 can put forth his ability, he takes his place in the ranks of
 office; when he finds himself unable to do so, he retires from it. How
 can he be used as a guide to a blind man, who does not support him
 when tottering, nor raise him up when fallen?'
   "And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger or rhinoceros
 escapes from his cage; when a tortoise or piece of jade is injured
 in its repository:-whose is the fault?"
   Zan Yu said, "But at present, Chwan-yu is strong and near to Pi;
 if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sorrow to
 his descendants."
   Confucius said. "Ch'iu, the superior man hates those declining to
 say-'I want such and such a thing,' and framing explanations for their
   "I have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of families are not
 troubled lest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they
 should not keep their several places; that they are not troubled
 with fears of poverty, but are troubled with fears of a want of
 contented repose among the people in their several places. For when
 the people keep their several places, there will be no poverty; when
 harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people; and when
 there is such a contented repose, there will be no rebellious
   "So it is.-Therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, all
 the influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to
 attract them to be so; and when they have been so attracted, they must
 be made contented and tranquil.
   "Now, here are you, Yu and Ch'iu, assisting your chief. Remoter
 people are not submissive, and, with your help, he cannot attract them
 to him. In his own territory there are divisions and downfalls,
 leavings and separations, and, with your help, he cannot preserve it.
   "And yet he is planning these hostile movements within the
 state.-I am afraid that the sorrow of the Chi-sun family will not be
 on account of Chwan-yu, but will be found within the screen of their
 own court."
   Confucius said, "When good government prevails in the empire,
 ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from
 the son of Heaven. When bad government prevails in the empire,
 ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from
 the princes. When these things proceed from the princes, as a rule,
 the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in ten
 generations. When they proceed from the great officers of the princes,
 as a rule, the case will be few in which they do not lose their
 power in five generations. When the subsidiary ministers of the
 great officers hold in their grasp the orders of the state, as a
 rule the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in
 three generations.
   "When right principles prevail in the kingdom, government will not
 be in the hands of the great officers.
   "When right principles prevail in the kingdom, there will be no
 discussions among the common people."
   Confucius said, "The revenue of the state has left the ducal house
 now for five generations. The government has been in the hands of
 the great officers for four generations. On this account, the
 descendants of the three Hwan are much reduced."
   Confucius said, "There are three friendships which are advantageous,
 and three which are injurious. Friendship with the uplight; friendship
 with the sincere; and friendship with the man of much
 observation:-these are advantageous. Friendship with the man of
 specious airs; friendship with the insinuatingly soft; and
 friendship with the glib-tongued:-these are injurious."
   Confucius said, "There are three things men find enjoyment in
 which are advantageous, and three things they find enjoyment in
 which are injurious. To find enjoyment in the discriminating study
 of ceremonies and music; to find enjoyment in speaking of the goodness
 of others; to find enjoyment in having many worthy friends:-these
 are advantageous. To find enjoyment in extravagant pleasures; to
 find enjoyment in idleness and sauntering; to find enjoyment in the
 pleasures of feasting:-these are injurious."
   Confucius said, "There are three errors to which they who stand in
 the presence of a man of virtue and station are liable. They may speak
 when it does not come to them to speak;-this is called rashness.
 They may not speak when it comes to them to speak;-this is called
 concealment. They may speak without looking at the countenance of
 their superior;-this is called blindness."
   Confucius said, "There are three things which the superior man
 guards against. In youth, when the physical powers are not yet
 settled, he guards against lust. When he is strong and the physical
 powers are full of vigor, he guards against quarrelsomeness. When he
 is old, and the animal powers are decayed, he guards against
   Confucius said, "There are three things of which the superior man
 stands in awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. He stands
 in awe of great men. He stands in awe of the words of sages.
   "The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, and
 consequently does not stand in awe of them. He is disrespectful to
 great men. He makes sport of the words of sages."
   Confucius said, "Those who are born with the possession of knowledge
 are the highest class of men. Those who learn, and so readily get
 possession of knowledge, are the next. Those who are dull and
 stupid, and yet compass the learning, are another class next to these.
 As to those who are dull and stupid and yet do not learn;-they are the
 lowest of the people."
   Confucius said, "The superior man has nine things which are subjects
 with him of thoughtful consideration. In regard to the use of his
 eyes, he is anxious to see clearly. In regard to the use of his
 ears, he is anxious to hear distinctly. In regard to his
 countenance, he is anxious that it should be benign. In regard to
 his demeanor, he is anxious that it should be respectful. In regard to
 his speech, he is anxious that it should be sincere. In regard to
 his doing of business, he is anxious that it should be reverently
 careful. In regard to what he doubts about, he is anxious to
 question others. When he is angry, he thinks of the difficulties his
 anger may involve him in. When he sees gain to be got, he thinks of
   Confucius said, "Contemplating good, and pursuing it, as if they
 could not reach it; contemplating evil! and shrinking from it, as they
 would from thrusting the hand into boiling water:-I have seen such
 men, as I have heard such words.
   "Living in retirement to study their aims, and practicing
 righteousness to carry out their principles:-I have heard these words,
 but I have not seen such men."
   The Duke Ching of Ch'i had a thousand teams, each of four horses,
 but on the day of his death, the people did not praise him for a
 single virtue. Po-i and Shu-ch'i died of hunger at the foot of the
 Shau-yang mountains, and the people, down to the present time,
 praise them.
   "Is not that saying illustrated by this?"
   Ch'an K'ang asked Po-yu, saying, "Have you heard any lessons from
 your father different from what we have all heard?"
   Po-yu replied, "No. He was standing alone once, when I passed
 below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the
 Odes?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, If you do not learn the
 Odes, you will not be fit to converse with.' I retired and studied the
   "Another day, he was in the same way standing alone, when I passed
 by below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you
 learned the rules of Propriety?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added,
 'If you do not learn the rules of Propriety, your character cannot
 be established.' I then retired, and learned the rules of Propriety.
   "I have heard only these two things from him."
   Ch'ang K'ang retired, and, quite delighted, said, "I asked one
 thing, and I have got three things. I have heard about the Odes. I
 have heard about the rules of Propriety. I have also heard that the
 superior man maintains a distant reserve towards his son."
   The wife of the prince of a state is called by him Fu Zan. She calls
 herself Hsiao T'ung. The people of the state call her Chun Fu Zan,
 and, to the people of other states, they call her K'wa Hsiao Chun. The
 people of other states also call her Chun Fu Zan.
   Yang Ho wished to see Confucius, but Confucius would not go to see
 him. On this, he sent a present of a pig to Confucius, who, having
 chosen a time when Ho was not at home went to pay his respects for the
 gift. He met him, however, on the way.
   Ho said to Confucius, "Come, let me speak with you." He then
 asked, "Can he be called benevolent who keeps his jewel in his
 bosom, and leaves his country to confusion?" Confucius replied,
 "No." "Can he be called wise, who is anxious to be engaged in public
 employment, and yet is constantly losing the opportunity of being so?"
 Confucius again said, "No." "The days and months are passing away; the
 years do not wait for us." Confucius said, "Right; I will go into
   The Master said, "By nature, men are nearly alike; by practice, they
 get to be wide apart."
   The Master said, "There are only the wise of the highest class,
 and the stupid of the lowest class, who cannot be changed."
   The Master, having come to Wu-ch'ang, heard there the sound of
 stringed instruments and singing.
   Well pleased and smiling, he said, "Why use an ox knife to kill a
   Tsze-yu replied, "Formerly, Master, I heard you say,-'When the man
 of high station is well instructed, he loves men; when the man of
 low station is well instructed, he is easily ruled.'"
   The Master said, "My disciples, Yen's words are right. What I said
 was only in sport."
   Kung-shan Fu-zao, when he was holding Pi, and in an attitude of
 rebellion, invited the Master to visit him, who was rather inclined to
   Tsze-lu was displeased. and said, "Indeed, you cannot go! Why must
 you think of going to see Kung-shan?"
   The Master said, "Can it be without some reason that he has
 invited ME? If any one employ me, may I not make an eastern Chau?"
   Tsze-chang asked Confucius about perfect virtue. Confucius said, "To
 be able to practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes
 perfect virtue." He begged to ask what they were, and was told,
 "Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. If
 you are grave, you will not be treated with disrespect. If you are
 generous, you will win all. If you are sincere, people will repose
 trust in you. If you are earnest, you will accomplish much. If you are
 kind, this will enable you to employ the services of others.
   Pi Hsi inviting him to visit him, the Master was inclined to go.
   Tsze-lu said, "Master, formerly I have heard you say, 'When a man in
 his own person is guilty of doing evil, a superior man will not
 associate with him.' Pi Hsi is in rebellion, holding possession of
 Chung-mau; if you go to him, what shall be said?"
   The Master said, "Yes, I did use these words. But is it not said,
 that, if a thing be really hard, it may be ground without being made
 thin? Is it not said, that, if a thing be really white, it may be
 steeped in a dark fluid without being made black?
   "Am I a bitter gourd? How can I be hung up out of the way of being
   The Master said, "Yu, have you heard the six words to which are
 attached six becloudings?" Yu replied, "I have not."
   "Sit down, and I will tell them to you.
   "There is the love of being benevolent without the love of
 learning;-the beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity. There
 is the love of knowing without the love of learning;-the beclouding
 here leads to dissipation of mind. There is the love of being
 sincere without the love of learning;-the beclouding here leads to
 an injurious disregard of consequences. There is the love of
 straightforwardness without the love of learning;-the beclouding
 here leads to rudeness. There is the love of boldness without the love
 of learning;-the beclouding here leads to insubordination. There is
 the love of firmness without the love of learning;-the beclouding here
 leads to extravagant conduct."
   The Master said, "My children, why do you not study the Book of
   "The Odes serve to stimulate the mind.
   "They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation.
   "They teach the art of sociability.
   "They show how to regulate feelings of resentment.
   "From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one's
 father, and the remoter one of serving one's prince.
   "From them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds,
 beasts, and plants."
   The Master said to Po-yu, "Do you give yourself to the Chau-nan
 and the Shao-nan. The man who has not studied the Chau-nan and the
 Shao-nan is like one who stands with his face right against a wall. Is
 he not so?"
  The Master said, "'It is according to the rules of propriety,' they
 say.-'It is according to the rules of propriety,' they say. Are gems
 and silk all that is meant by propriety? 'It is music,' they
 say.-'It is music,' they say. Are hers and drums all that is meant
 by music?"
   The Master said, "He who puts on an appearance of stern firmness,
 while inwardly he is weak, is like one of the small, mean people;-yea,
 is he not like the thief who breaks through, or climbs over, a wall?"
   The Master said, "Your good, careful people of the villages are
 the thieves of virtue."
   The Master said, To tell, as we go along, what we have heard on
 the way, is to cast away our virtue."
   The Master said, "There are those mean creatures! How impossible
 it is along with them to serve one's prince!
   "While they have not got their aims, their anxiety is how to get
 them. When they have got them, their anxiety is lest they should
 lose them.
   "When they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is
 nothing to which they will not proceed."
   The Master said, "Anciently, men had three failings, which now
 perhaps are not to be found.
   "The high-mindedness of antiquity showed itself in a disregard of
 small things; the high-mindedness of the present day shows itself in
 wild license. The stern dignity of antiquity showed itself in grave
 reserve; the stern dignity of the present day shows itself in
 quarrelsome perverseness. The stupidity of antiquity showed itself
 in straightforwardness; the stupidity of the present day shows
 itself in sheer deceit."
   The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are
 seldom associated with virtue."
   The Master said, "I hate the manner in which purple takes away the
 luster of vermilion. I hate the way in which the songs of Chang
 confound the music of the Ya. I hate those who with their sharp mouths
 overthrow kingdoms and families."
   The Master said, "I would prefer not speaking."
   Tsze-kung said, "If you, Master, do not speak, what shall we, your
 disciples, have to record?"
   The Master said, "Does Heaven speak? The four seasons pursue their
 courses, and all things are continually being produced, but does
 Heaven say anything?"
   Zu Pei wished to see Confucius, but Confucius declined, on the
 ground of being sick, to see him. When the bearer of this message went
 out at the door, the Master took his lute and sang to it, in order
 that Pei might hear him.
   Tsai Wo asked about the three years' mourning for parents, saying
 that one year was long enough.
   "If the superior man," said he, "abstains for three years from the
 observances of propriety, those observances will be quite lost. If for
 three years he abstains from music, music will be ruined. Within a
 year the old grain is exhausted, and the new grain has sprung up, and,
 in procuring fire by friction, we go through all the changes of wood
 for that purpose. After a complete year, the mourning may stop."
   The Master said, "If you were, after a year, to eat good rice, and
 wear embroidered clothes, would you feel at ease?" "I should," replied
   The Master said, "If you can feel at ease, do it. But a superior
 man, during the whole period of mourning, does not enjoy pleasant food
 which he may eat, nor derive pleasure from music which he may hear. He
 also does not feel at ease, if he is comfortably lodged. Therefore
 he does not do what you propose. But now you feel at ease and may do
   Tsai Wo then went out, and the Master said, "This shows Yu's want of
 virtue. It is not till a child is three years old that it is allowed
 to leave the arms of its parents. And the three years' mourning is
 universally observed throughout the empire. Did Yu enjoy the three
 years' love of his parents?"
   The Master said, "Hard is it to deal with who will stuff himself
 with food the whole day, without applying his mind to anything good!
 Are there not gamesters and chess players? To be one of these would
 still be better than doing nothing at all."
   Tsze-lu said, "Does the superior man esteem valor?" The Master said,
 "The superior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. A
 man in a superior situation, having valor without righteousness,
 will be guilty of insubordination; one of the lower people having
 valor without righteousness, will commit robbery."
   Tsze-kung said, "Has the superior man his hatreds also?" The
 Master said, "He has his hatreds. He hates those who proclaim the evil
 of others. He hates the man who, being in a low station, slanders
 his superiors. He hates those who have valor merely, and are
 unobservant of propriety. He hates those who are forward and
 determined, and, at the same time, of contracted understanding."
   The Master then inquired, "Ts'ze, have you also your hatreds?"
 Tsze-kung replied, "I hate those who pry out matters, and ascribe
 the knowledge to their wisdom. I hate those who are only not modest,
 and think that they are valorous. I hate those who make known secrets,
 and think that they are straightforward."
   The Master said, "Of all people, girls and servants are the most
 difficult to behave to. If you are familiar with them, they lose their
 humility. If you maintain a reserve towards them, they are
   The Master said, "When a man at forty is the object of dislike, he
 will always continue what he is."
   The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The Viscount of Chi
 became a slave to Chau. Pi-kan remonstrated with him and died.
   Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty possessed these three men of
   Hui of Liu-hsia, being chief criminal judge, was thrice dismissed
 from his office. Some one said to him, "Is it not yet time for you,
 sir, to leave this?" He replied, "Serving men in an upright way, where
 shall I go to, and not experience such a thrice-repeated dismissal? If
 I choose to serve men in a crooked way, what necessity is there for me
 to leave the country of my parents?"
   The duke Ching of Ch'i, with reference to the manner in which he
 should treat Confucius, said, "I cannot treat him as I would the chief
 of the Chi family. I will treat him in a manner between that
 accorded to the chief of the Chil and that given to the chief of the
 Mang family." He also said, "I am old; I cannot use his doctrines."
 Confucius took his departure.
   The people of Ch'i sent to Lu a present of female musicians, which
 Chi Hwan received, and for three days no court was held. Confucius
 took his departure.
   The madman of Ch'u, Chieh-yu, passed by Confucius, singing and
 saying, "O FANG! O FANG! How is your virtue degenerated! As to the
 past, reproof is useless; but the future may still be provided
 against. Give up your vain pursuit. Give up your vain pursuit. Peril
 awaits those who now engage in affairs of government."
   Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but Chieh-yu
 hastened away, so that he could not talk with him.
   Ch'ang-tsu and Chieh-ni were at work in the field together, when
 Confucius passed by them, and sent Tsze-lu to inquire for the ford.
   Ch'ang-tsu said, "Who is he that holds the reins in the carriage
 there?" Tsze-lu told him, "It is K'ung Ch'iu.', "Is it not K'ung of
 Lu?" asked he. "Yes," was the reply, to which the other rejoined,
 "He knows the ford."
   Tsze-lu then inquired of Chieh-ni, who said to him, "Who are you,
 sir?" He answered, "I am Chung Yu." "Are you not the disciple of K'ung
 Ch'iu of Lu?" asked the other. "I am," replied he, and then Chieh-ni
 said to him, "Disorder, like a swelling flood, spreads over the
 whole empire, and who is he that will change its state for you? Rather
 than follow one who merely withdraws from this one and that one, had
 you not better follow those who have withdrawn from the world
 altogether?" With this he fell to covering up the seed, and
 proceeded with his work, without stopping.
   Tsze-lu went and reported their remarks, when the Master observed
 with a sigh, "It is impossible to associate with birds and beasts,
 as if they were the same with us. If I associate not with these
 people,-with mankind,-with whom shall I associate? If right principles
 prevailed through the empire, there would be no use for me to change
 its state."
   Tsze-lu, following the Master, happened to fall behind, when he
 met an old man, carrying across his shoulder on a staff a basket for
 weeds. Tsze-lu said to him, "Have you seen my master, sir?" The old
 man replied, "Your four limbs are unaccustomed to toil; you cannot
 distinguish the five kinds of grain:-who is your master?" With this,
 he planted his staff in the ground, and proceeded to weed.
   Tsze-lu joined his hands across his breast, and stood before him.
   The old man kept Tsze-lu to pass the night in his house, killed a
 fowl, prepared millet, and feasted him. He also introduced to him
 his two sons.
   Next day, Tsze-lu went on his way, and reported his adventure. The
 Master said, "He is a recluse," and sent Tsze-lu back to see him
 again, but when he got to the place, the old man was gone.
   Tsze-lu then said to the family, "Not to take office is not
 righteous. If the relations between old and young may not be
 neglected, how is it that he sets aside the duties that should be
 observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing to maintain his
 personal purity, he allows that great relation to come to confusion. A
 superior man takes office, and performs the righteous duties belonging
 to it. As to the failure of right principles to make progress, he is
 aware of that."
   The men who have retired to privacy from the world have been Po-i,
 Shu-ch'i, Yuchung, I-yi, Chu-chang, Hui of Liu-hsia, and Shao-lien.
   The Master said, "Refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to
 any taint in their persons; such, I think, were Po-i and Shu-ch'i.
   "It may be said of Hui of Liu-hsia! and of Shaolien, that they
 surrendered their wills, and submitted to taint in their persons,
 but their words corresponded with reason, and their actions were
 such as men are anxious to see. This is all that is to be remarked
 in them.
   "It may be said of Yu-chung and I-yi, that, while they hid
 themselves in their seclusion, they gave a license to their words; but
 in their persons, they succeeded in preserving their purity, and, in
 their retirement, they acted according to the exigency of the times.
   "I am different from all these. I have no course for which I am
 predetermined, and no course against which I am predetermined."
   The grand music master, Chih, went to Ch'i.
   Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went to Ch'u.
 Liao, the band master at the third meal, went to Ts'ai. Chueh, the
 band master at the fourth meal, went to Ch'in.
   Fang-shu, the drum master, withdrew to the north of the river.
   Wu, the master of the hand drum, withdrew to the Han.
   Yang, the assistant music master, and Hsiang, master of the
 musical stone, withdrew to an island in the sea.
   The duke of Chau addressed his son, the duke of Lu, saying, "The
 virtuous prince does not neglect his relations. He does not cause
 the great ministers to repine at his not employing them. Without
 some great cause, he does not dismiss from their offices the members
 of old families. He does not seek in one man talents for every
   To Chau belonged the eight officers, Po-ta, Po-kwo, Chung-tu,
 Chung-hwu, Shu-ya, Shuhsia, Chi-sui, and Chi-kwa.
   Tsze-chang said, "The scholar, trained for public duty, seeing
 threatening danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life. When the
 opportunity of gain is presented to him, he thinks of righteousness.
 In sacrificing, his thoughts are reverential. In mourning, his
 thoughts are about the grief which he should feel. Such a man commands
 our approbation indeed
   Tsze-chang said, "When a man holds fast to virtue, but without
 seeking to enlarge it, and believes in right principles, but without
 firm sincerity, what account can be made of his existence or
   The disciples of Tsze-hsia asked Tsze-chang about the principles
 that should characterize mutual intercourse. Tsze-chang asked, "What
 does Tsze-hsia say on the subject?" They replied, "Tsze-hsia says:
 'Associate with those who can advantage you. Put away from you those
 who cannot do so.'" Tsze-chang observed, "This is different from
 what I have learned. The superior man honors the talented and
 virtuous, and bears with all. He praises the good, and pities the
 incompetent. Am I possessed of great talents and virtue?-who is
 there among men whom I will not bear with? Am I devoid of talents
 and virtue?-men will put me away from them. What have we to do with
 the putting away of others?"
   Tsze-hsia said, "Even in inferior studies and employments there is
 something worth being looked at; but if it be attempted to carry
 them out to what is remote, there is a danger of their proving
 inapplicable. Therefore, the superior man does not practice them."
   Tsze-hsia said, "He, who from day to day recognizes what he has
 not yet, and from month to month does not forget what he has
 attained to, may be said indeed to love to learn."
   Tsze-hsia said, "There are learning extensively, and having a firm
 and sincere aim; inquiring with earnestness, and reflecting with
 self-application:-virtue is in such a course."
   Tsze-hsia said, "Mechanics have their shops to dwell in, in order to
 accomplish their works. The superior man learns, in order to reach
 to the utmost of his principles."
   Tsze-hsia said, "The mean man is sure to gloss his faults."
   Tsze-hsia said, "The superior man undergoes three changes. Looked at
 from a distance, he appears stern; when approached, he is mild; when
 he is heard to speak, his language is firm and decided."
   Tsze-hsia said, "The superior man, having obtained their confidence,
 may then impose labors on his people. If he have not gained their
 confidence, they will think that he is oppressing them. Having
 obtained the confidence of his prince, one may then remonstrate with
 him. If he have not gained his confidence, the prince will think
 that he is vilifying him."
   Tsze-hsia said, "When a person does not transgress the boundary line
 in the great virtues, he may pass and repass it in the small virtues."
   Tsze-yu said, "The disciples and followers of Tsze-hsia, in
 sprinkling and sweeping the ground, in answering and replying, in
 advancing and receding, are sufficiently accomplished. But these are
 only the branches of learning, and they are left ignorant of what is
 essential.-How can they be acknowledged as sufficiently taught?"
   Tsze-hsia heard of the remark and said, "Alas! Yen Yu is wrong.
 According to the way of the superior man in teaching, what departments
 are there which he considers of prime importance, and delivers? what
 are there which he considers of secondary importance, and allows
 himself to be idle about? But as in the case of plants, which are
 assorted according to their classes, so he deals with his disciples.
 How can the way of a superior man be such as to make fools of any of
 them? Is it not the sage alone, who can unite in one the beginning and
 the consummation of learning?"
   Tsze-hsia said, "The officer, having discharged all his duties,
 should devote his leisure to learning. The student, having completed
 his learning, should apply himself to be an officer."
   Tsze-hsia said, "Mourning, having been carried to the utmost
 degree of grief, should stop with that."
   Tsze-hsia said, "My friend Chang can do things which are hard to
 be done, but yet he is not perfectly virtuous."
   The philosopher Tsang said, "How imposing is the manner of Chang! It
 is difficult along with him to practice virtue."
   The philosopher Tsang said, "I heard this from our Master: 'Men
 may not have shown what is in them to the full extent, and yet they
 will be found to do so, on the occasion of mourning for their
   The philosopher Tsang said, "I have heard this from our Master:-'The
 filial piety of Mang Chwang, in other matters, was what other men
 are competent to, but, as seen in his not changing the ministers of
 his father, nor his father's mode of government, it is difficult to be
 attained to.'"
   The chief of the Mang family having appointed Yang Fu to be chief
 criminal judge, the latter consulted the philosopher Tsang. Tsang
 said, "The rulers have failed in their duties, and the people
 consequently have been disorganized for a long time. When you have
 found out the truth of any accusation, be grieved for and pity them,
 and do not feel joy at your own ability."
   Tsze-kung said, "Chau's wickedness was not so great as that name
 implies. Therefore, the superior man hates to dwell in a low-lying
 situation, where all the evil of the world will flow in upon him."
   Tsze-kung said, "The faults of the superior man are like the
 eclipses of the sun and moon. He has his faults, and all men see them;
 he changes again, and all men look up to him."
   Kung-sun Ch'ao of Wei asked Tszekung, saying. "From whom did
 Chung-ni get his learning?"
   Tsze-kung replied, "The doctrines of Wan and Wu have not yet
 fallen to the ground. They are to be found among men. Men of talents
 and virtue remember the greater principles of them, and others, not
 possessing such talents and virtue, remember the smaller. Thus, all
 possess the doctrines of Wan and Wu. Where could our Master go that he
 should not have an opportunity of learning them? And yet what
 necessity was there for his having a regular master?"
   Shu-sun Wu-shu observed to the great officers in the court,
 saying, "Tsze-kung is superior to Chung-ni."
   Tsze-fu Ching-po reported the observation to Tsze-kung, who said,
 "Let me use the comparison of a house and its encompassing wall. My
 wall only reaches to the shoulders. One may peep over it, and see
 whatever is valuable in the apartments.
   "The wall of my Master is several fathoms high. If one do not find
 the door and enter by it, he cannot see the ancestral temple with
 its beauties, nor all the officers in their rich array.
   "But I may assume that they are few who find the door. Was not the
 observation of the chief only what might have been expected?"
   Shu-sun Wu-shu having spoken revilingly of Chung-ni, Tsze-kung said,
 "It is of no use doing so. Chung-ni cannot be reviled. The talents and
 virtue of other men are hillocks and mounds which may be stepped over.
 Chung-ni is the sun or moon, which it is not possible to step over.
 Although a man may wish to cut himself off from the sage, what harm
 can he do to the sun or moon? He only shows that he does not know
 his own capacity.
   Ch'an Tsze-ch' in, addressing Tsze-kung, said, "You are too
 modest. How can Chung-ni be said to be superior to you?"
   Tsze-kung said to him, "For one word a man is often deemed to be
 wise, and for one word he is often deemed to be foolish. We ought to
 be careful indeed in what we say.
   "Our Master cannot be attained to, just in the same way as the
 heavens cannot be gone up by the steps of a stair.
   "Were our Master in the position of the ruler of a state or the
 chief of a family, we should find verified the description which has
 been given of a sage's rule:-he would plant the people, and
 forthwith they would be established; he would lead them on, and
 forthwith they would follow him; he would make them happy, and
 forthwith multitudes would resort to his dominions; he would stimulate
 them, and forthwith they would be harmonious. While he lived, he would
 be glorious. When he died, he would be bitterly lamented. How is it
 possible for him to be attained to?"
   Yao said, "Oh! you, Shun, the Heaven-determined order of
 succession now rests in your person. Sincerely hold fast the due Mean.
 If there shall be distress and want within the four seas, the Heavenly
 revenue will come to a perpetual end."
   Shun also used the same language in giving charge to Yu.
   T'ang said, "I the child Li, presume to use a dark-colored victim,
 and presume to announce to Thee, O most great and sovereign God,
 that the sinner I dare not pardon, and thy ministers, O God, I do
 not keep in obscurity. The examination of them is by thy mind, O
 God. If, in my person, I commit offenses, they are not to be
 attributed to you, the people of the myriad regions. If you in the
 myriad regions commit offenses, these offenses must rest on my
   Chau conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched.
   "Although he has his near relatives, they are not equal to my
 virtuous men. The people are throwing blame upon me, the One man."
   He carefully attended to the weights and measures, examined the body
 of the laws, restored the discarded officers, and the good
 government of the kingdom took its course.
   He revived states that had been extinguished, restored families
 whose line of succession had been broken, and called to office those
 who had retired into obscurity, so that throughout the kingdom the
 hearts of the people turned towards him.
   What he attached chief importance to were the food of the people,
 the duties of mourning, and sacrifices.
   By his generosity, he won all. By his sincerity, he made the
 people repose trust in him. By his earnest activity, his
 achievements were great. By his justice, all were delighted.
   Tsze-chang asked Confucius, saying, "In what way should a person
 in authority act in order that he may conduct government properly?"
 The Master replied, "Let him honor the five excellent, and banish away
 the four bad, things;-then may he conduct government properly."
 Tsze-chang said, "What are meant by the five excellent things?" The
 Master said, "When the person in authority is beneficent without great
 expenditure; when he lays tasks on the people without their
 repining; when he pursues what he desires without being covetous; when
 he maintains a dignified ease without being proud; when he is majestic
 without being fierce."
   Tsze-chang said, "What is meant by being beneficent without great
 expenditure?" The Master replied, "When the person in authority
 makes more beneficial to the people the things from which they
 naturally derive benefit;-is not this being beneficent without great
 expenditure? When he chooses the labors which are proper, and makes
 them labor on them, who will repine? When his desires are set on
 benevolent government, and he secures it, who will accuse him of
 covetousness? Whether he has to do with many people or few, or with
 things great or small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect;-is
 not this to maintain a dignified ease without any pride? He adjusts
 his clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks, so that,
 thus dignified, he is looked at with awe;-is not this to be majestic
 without being fierce?"
   Tsze-chang then asked, "What are meant by the four bad things?"
 The Master said, "To put the people to death without having instructed
 them;-this is called cruelty. To require from them, suddenly, the full
 tale of work, without having given them warning;-this is called
 oppression. To issue orders as if without urgency, at first, and, when
 the time comes, to insist on them with severity;-this is called
 injury. And, generally, in the giving pay or rewards to men, to do
 it in a stingy way;-this is called acting the part of a mere
   The Master said, "Without recognizing the ordinances of Heaven, it
 is impossible to be a superior man.
   "Without an acquaintance with the rules of Propriety, it is
 impossible for the character to be established.
   "Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to know men."
                             THE END