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The Book of Enoch the Prophet, tr. by Richard Laurence, [1883], at

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1. Now, my son Mathusala, all these things I speak unto thee, and write for thee. To thee I have revealed all, and have given thee books of everything.

2. Preserve, my son Mathusala, the books written by thy father; 1 that thou mayest transmit them to future generations.

3. Wisdom have I given to thee, to thy children, and thy posterity, that they may transmit to their children, for generations for ever, this wisdom in their thoughts; and that those who comprehend it may not slumber, but hear with their ears; that they may learn this wisdom, and be deemed worthy of eating this wholesome food.

4. Blessed are all the righteous; blessed all who walk in the paths of righteousness; in whom no crime is found, as in sinners, when all their days are numbered.

5. With respect to the progress of the sun in heaven, it enters and goes out of each gate for thirty days, with the leaders of the thousand classes of the stars; with four which are added, and appertain to the four quarters of the year, which conduct them, and accompany them at four periods.

6. Respecting these, men greatly err, and do not

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compute them in the computation of every age; for they greatly err respecting them; nor do men know accurately that they are in the computation of the year. But indeed these are marked down 1 for ever; one in the first gate, one in the third, one in the fourth, and one in the sixth:

7. So that the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days.

8. Truly has been stated, 2 and accurately has been computed that which is marked down; for the luminaries, the months, the fixed periods, the years, and the days, Uriel has explained to me, and communicated to me; 3 whom the Lord of all creation, on my account, commanded (according to the might of heaven, and the power which it possesses both by night and by day) to explain the laws of light to man, of the sun, moon, and stars, and of all the powers of heaven, which are turned with their respective orbs.

9. This is the ordinance of the stars, which set in their places, in their seasons, in their periods, in their days, and in their months.

10. These are the names of those who conduct them, who watch and enter in their seasons, according to their ordinance in their periods, in their months, in the times of their influence, and in their stations.

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11. Four conductors of them first enter, who separate the four quarters of the year. After these, twelve conductors of their classes, who separate the months and the year into three hundred and sixty-four days, with the leaders of a thousand, who distinguish between the days, as well as between the four additional ones; which, as conductors, divide the four quarters of the year.

12. These leaders of a thousand are in the midst of the conductors, and the conductors are added each behind his station, and their conductors make the separation. These are the names of the conductors, who separate the four quarters of the year, who are appointed over them: Melkel, Helammelak,

13. Meliyal, and Narel.

14. And the names of those who conduct them are Adnarel, Jyasusal, and Jyelumeal.

15. These are the three who follow after the conductors of the classes of stars; each following after the three conductors of the classes, which themselves follow after those conductors of the stations, who divide the four quarters of the year.

16. In the first part of the year rises and rules Melkyas, who is named Tamani, and Zahay. 1

17. All the days of his influence, during which he rules, are ninety-one days.

18. And these are the signs of the days which

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are seen upon earth. In the days of his influence there is perspiration, heat, and trouble. All the trees become fruitful; the leaf of every tree comes forth; the corn is reaped; the rose and every species of flowers blossoms in the field; and the trees of winter are dried up.

19. These are the names of the conductors who are under them: Barkel, Zelsabel; and another additional conductor of a thousand is named Heloyalef, the days of whose influence have been completed. The other conductor next after them is Helemmelek, whose name they call the splendid Zahay.

20. All the days of his light are ninety-one days.

21. These are the signs of the days upon earth, heat and drought; while the trees bring forth their fruits, warmed and concocted, and give their fruits to dry.

22. The flocks follow and yean. All the fruits of the earth are collected, with everything in the fields, and the vines are trodden. This takes place during the time of his influence.

23. These are their names and orders, and the names of the conductors who are under them, of those who are chiefs of a thousand: Gedaeyal, Keel, Heel.

24. And the name of the additional leader of a thousand is Asphael.

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25. The days of his influence have been completed.



1. And now I have shown thee, my son Mathusala, every sight which I saw prior to thy birth. 2 I will relate another vision, which I saw before I was married; they resemble each other.

2. The first was when I was learning a book; and the other before I was married to thy mother. I saw a potent vision;

3. And on account of these things besought the Lord.

4. I was lying down in the house of my grandfather Malalel, when I saw in a vision heaven purifying, and snatched away.

5. And falling to the earth, I saw likewise the earth absorbed by a great abyss; and mountains suspended over mountains.

6. Hills were sinking upon hills, lofty trees were gliding 3 off from their trunks, and were in the act of being projected, and of sinking into the abyss.

7. Being alarmed at these things, my voice faltered. 4 I cried out and said, The earth is destroyed. Then my grandfather Malalel raised me

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up, and said to me: Why dost thou thus cry out, my son? and wherefore dost thou thus lament?

8. I related to him the whole vision which I had seen. He said to me, Confirmed is that which thou hast seen, my son;

9. And potent the vision of thy dream respecting every secret sin of the earth. Its substance shall sink into the abyss, and a great destruction take place.

10. Now, my son, rise up; and beseech the Lord of glory (for thou art faithful), that a remnant may be left upon earth, and that he would not wholly destroy it. My son, all this calamity upon earth comes down from heaven; 1 upon earth shall there be a great destruction.

11. Then I arose, prayed, and entreated; and wrote down my prayer for the generations of the world, explaining everything to my son Mathusala.

12. When I went out below, and looking up to heaven, beheld the sun proceeding from the east, the moon descending to the west, a few scattered stars, and everything which God 2 has known from the beginning, I blessed the Lord of judgment, and magnified him: because he hath sent forth the sun from the chambers 3 of the east; that, ascending and rising in the face of heaven, it might spring up, and pursue the path which has been pointed out to it.

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1. I lifted up my hands in righteousness, and blessed the holy, and the Great One. I spoke with the breath of my mouth, and with a tongue of flesh, which God has formed for all the sons of mortal men, that with it they may speak; giving them breath, a mouth, and a tongue to converse with.

2. Blessed art thou, O Lord, the King, great and powerful in thy greatness, Lord of all the creatures of heaven, King of kings, God of the whole world, whose reign, whose kingdom, and whose majesty endure for ever and ever.

3. From generation to generation shall thy dominion exist. All the heavens are thy throne for ever, and all the earth thy footstool for ever and for ever.

4. For thou hast made them, and over all thou reignest. No act whatsoever exceeds thy power. With thee wisdom is unchangeable; nor from thy throne and from thy presence is it ever averted. Thou knowest all things, seest and hearest them; nor is anything concealed from thee; for thou perceivest all things.

5. The angels of thy heavens have transgressed; and on mortal flesh shall thy wrath remain, 1 until the day of the great judgment.

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6. Now then, O God, Lord and mighty King, I entreat thee, and beseech thee to grant my prayer, that a posterity may be left to me on earth, and that the whole human race may not perish;

7. That the earth may not be left destitute, and destruction take place for ever.

8. O my Lord, let the race perish from off the earth which has offended thee, but a righteous and upright race establish for a posterity 1 for ever. Hide not thy face, O Lord, from the prayer of thy servant.



1. After this I saw another dream, and explained it all to thee, my son. Enoch arose and said to his son Mathusala, To thee, my son, will I speak. Hear my word; and incline thine ear to the visionary dream of thy father. Before I married thy mother Edna, I saw a vision on my bed;

2. And behold, a cow sprung forth from the earth;

3. And this cow was white.

4. Afterwards a female heifer sprung forth; and with it another heifer: 3 one of them was black, and one was red. 4

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5. The black heifer then struck the red one, and pursued it over the earth.

6. From that period I could see nothing more of the red heifer; but the black one increased in bulk, and a female heifer came with him.

7. After this I saw that many cows proceeded forth, resembling him, and following after him.

8. The first female young one also went out in the presence of the first cow; and sought the red heifer; but found him not.

9. And she lamented with a great lamentation, while she was seeking him.

10. Then I looked until that first cow came to her, from which time she became silent, and ceased to lament.

11. Afterwards she calved another white cow.

12. And again calved many cows and black heifers.

13. In my sleep also I perceived a white bull, which in like manner grew, and became a large white bull.

14. After him many white cows came forth, resembling him.

15. And they began to calve many other white cows, which resembled them and followed each other.

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1. Again I looked attentively, 1 while sleeping, and surveyed heaven above.

2. And behold a single star fell from heaven.

3. Which being raised up, ate and fed among those cows.

4. After that I perceived other large and black cows; and behold all of them changed their stalls and pastures, while their young began to lament one with another. Again I looked in my vision, and surveyed heaven; when behold I saw many stars which descended, and projected themselves from heaven to where the first star was,

5. Into the midst of those young ones; while the cows were with them, feeding in the midst of them.

6. I looked at and observed them; when behold, they all acted after the manner of horses, and began to approach the young cows, all of whom became pregnant, and brought forth elephants, camels, and asses.

7. At these all the cows were alarmed and terrified; when they began biting with their teeth, swallowing, and striking with their horns.

8. They began also to devour the cows; and

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behold all the children of the earth trembled, shook with terror at them, and suddenly fled away.



1. Again I perceived them, when they began to strike and to swallow each other; and the earth cried out. Then I raised my eyes a second time towards heaven, and saw in a vision, that, behold, there came forth from heaven as it were the likeness of white men. One came forth from thence, and three with him.

2. Those three, who came forth last, seized me by my hand; and raising me up from the generations of the earth, elevated me to a high station.

3. Then they showed me a lofty tower on the earth, while every hill became diminished. And they said, Remain here, until thou perceivest what shall come upon those elephants, camels, and asses, upon the stars, and upon all the cows.



1. Then I looked at that one of the four white men, who came forth first.

2. He seized the first star which fell down from heaven.

3. And, binding it hand and foot, he cast it into

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a valley; a valley narrow, deep, stupendous, and gloomy.

4. Then one of them drew his sword, and gave it to the elephants, camels, and asses, who began to strike each other. And the whole earth shook on account of them.

5. And when I looked in the vision, behold, one of those four angels, who came forth, hurled from heaven, collected together, and took all the great stars, whose form partly resembled that of horses; and binding them all hand and foot, cast them into the cavities of the earth.



1. Then one of those four went to the white cows, and taught them a mystery. While the cow was trembling, it was born, and became a man, 1 and fabricated for himself a large ship. In this he dwelt, and three cows 2 dwelt with him in that ship, which covered them.

2. Again I lifted up my eyes towards heaven, and saw a lofty roof. Above it were seven cataracts, which poured forth on a certain village much water.

3. Again I looked, and behold there were fountains open on the earth in that large village.

4. The water began to boil up, and rose over the

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earth; so that the village was not seen, while its whole soil was covered with water.

5. Much water was over it, darkness, and clouds. Then I surveyed the height of this water; and it was elevated above the village.

6. It flowed over the village, and stood higher than the earth.

7. Then all the cows which were collected there, while I looked on them, were drowned, swallowed up, and destroyed in the water.

8. But the ship floated above it. All the cows, the elephants, the camels, and the asses, were drowned on the earth, and all cattle. Nor could I perceive them. Neither were they able to get out, but perished, and sunk into the deep.

9. Again I looked in the vision until those cataracts from that lofty roof were removed, and the fountains of the earth became equalized, while other depths were opened;

10. Into which the water began to descend, until the dry ground appeared.

11. The ship remained on the earth; the darkness receded; and it became light.

12. Then the white cow, which became a man, went out of the ship, and the three cows with him.

13. One of the three cows was white, resembling that cow; one of them was red as blood; and one of them was black. And the white cow left them.

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14. Then began wild beasts and birds to bring forth.

15. Of all these the different kinds assembled together, lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, wild boars, foxes, rabbits, and the hanzar,

16. The siset, the avest, kites, the phonkas, and ravens.

17. Then a white cow 1 was born in the midst of them.

18. And they began to bite each other; when the white cow, which was born in the midst of them, brought forth a wild ass and a white cow at the same time, and after that many wild asses. Then the white cow, 2 which was born, brought forth a black wild sow and a white sheep. 3

19. That wild sow also brought forth many swine;

20. And that sheep brought forth twelve sheep. 4

21. When those twelve sheep grew up, they delivered one of them 5 to the asses. 6

22. Again those asses delivered that sheep to the wolves; 7

23. And he grew up in the midst of them.

24. Then the Lord brought the eleven other sheep, that they might dwell and feed with him in the midst of the wolves.

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25. They multiplied, and there was abundance of pasture for them.

26. But the wolves began to frighten and oppress them, while they destroyed their young ones.

27. And they left their young in torrents of deep water.

28. Now the sheep began to cry out on account of their young, and fled for refuge to their Lord. One 1 however, which was saved, escaped, and went away to the wild asses.

29. I beheld the sheep moaning, crying, and petitioning their Lord,

30. With all their might, until the Lord of the sheep descended at their voice from his lofty habitation; went to them; and inspected them.

31. He called to that sheep which had secretly stolen away from the wolves, and told him to make the wolves understand that they were not to touch the sheep.

32. Then that sheep went to the wolves with the word of the Lord, when another met him, 2 and proceeded with him.

33. Both of them together entered the dwelling of the wolves; and conversing with them made them understand, that from thenceforwards they were not to touch the sheep.

34. Afterwards I perceived the wolves greatly

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prevailing over the sheep with their whole force. The sheep cried out; and their Lord came to them.

35. He began to strike the wolves, who commenced a grievous lamentation; but the sheep were silent, nor from that time did they cry out.

36. I then looked at them, until they departed from the wolves. The eyes of the wolves were blind, who went out and followed them with all their might. But the Lord of the sheep proceeded with them, and conducted them.

37. All his sheep followed him.

38. His countenance was terrific and splendid, and glorious was his aspect. Yet the wolves began to follow the sheep, until they overtook them in a certain lake of water. 1

39. Then that lake became divided; the water standing up on both sides before their face.

40. And while their Lord was conducting them, he placed himself between them and the wolves.

41. The wolves however perceived not the sheep, but went into the midst of the lake, following them, and running after them into the lake of water.

42. But when they saw the Lord of the sheep, they turned to fly from before his face.

43. Then the water of the lake returned, and that suddenly, according to its nature. It became full,

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and was raised up, until it covered the wolves. And I saw that all of them which had followed the sheep perished, and were drowned.

44. But the sheep passed over this water, proceeding to a wilderness, which was without both water and grass. And they began to open their eves and to see.

45. Then I beheld the Lord of the sheep inspecting them, and giving them water and grass.

46. The sheep already mentioned was proceeding with them, and conducting them.

47. And when he had ascended the top of a lofty rock, the Lord of the sheep sent him to them.

48. Afterwards I perceived their Lord standing before them, with an aspect terrific and severe.

49. And when they all beheld him, they were frightened at his countenance.

50. All of them were alarmed, and trembled. They cried out after that sheep; and to the other sheep who had been with him, and who was in the midst of them, saying, We are not able to stand before our Lord, or to look upon him.

51. Then that sheep who conducted them went away, and ascended the top of the rock;

52. When the rest of the sheep began to grow blind, and to wander from the path which he had shown them; but he knew it not.

53. Their Lord however was moved with great

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indignation against them; and when that sheep had learned what had happened,

54. He descended from the top of the rock, and coming to them, found that there were many,

55. Which had become blind;

56. And had wandered from his path. As soon as they beheld him, they feared, and trembled at his presence;

57. And became desirous of returning to their fold.

58. Then that sheep, taking with him other sheep, went to those which had wandered.

59. And afterwards began to kill them. They were terrified at his countenance. Then he caused those which had wandered to return; who went back to their fold.

60. I likewise saw there in the vision, that this sheep became a man, built an house for the Lord of the sheep, and made them all stand in that house.

61. I perceived also that the sheep which proceeded to meet this sheep, their conductor, died. I saw, too, that all the great sheep perished, while smaller ones rose up in their place, entered into a pasture, and approached a river of water. 1

62. Then that sheep, their conductor, who became a man, was separated from them, and died.

63. All the sheep sought after him, and cried for him with bitter lamentation.

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64. I saw likewise that they ceased to cry after that sheep, and passed over the river of water.

65. And that there arose other sheep, all of whom conducted them, 1 instead of those who were dead, and who had previously conducted them.

66. Then I saw that the sheep entered into a goodly place, and a territory delectable and glorious.

67. I saw also that they became satiated; that their house was in the midst of a delectable territory: and that sometimes their eyes were opened, and that sometimes they were blind; until another sheep 2 arose and conducted them. He brought them all back; and their eyes were opened.

68. Then dogs, foxes, and wild boars began to devour them, until again another sheep 3 arose, the master of the flock, one of themselves, a ram, to conduct them. This ram began to butt on every side those dogs, foxes, and wild boars, until they all perished.

69. But the former sheep opened his eyes, and saw the ram in the midst of them, who had laid aside his glory.

70. And he began to strike the sheep, treading upon them, and behaving himself without dignity.

71. Then their Lord sent the former sheep again to a still different 4 sheep, 5 and raised him up to be

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a ram, and to conduct them instead of that sheep who had laid aside his glory.

72. Going therefore to him, and conversing with him alone, he raised up that ram, and made him a prince and leader of the flock. All the time that the dogs 1 troubled the sheep,

73. The first ram paid respect to this latter ram.

74. Then the latter ram arose, and fled away from before his face. And I saw that those dogs caused the first ram to fall.

75. But the latter ram arose, and conducted the smaller sheep.

76. That ram likewise begat many sheep, and died.

77. Then there was a smaller sheep, 2 a ram, instead of him, which became a prince and leader, conducting the flock.

78. And the sheep increased in size, and multiplied.

79. And all the dogs, foxes, and wild boars feared, and fled away from him.

80. That ram also struck and killed all the wild beasts, so that they could not again prevail in the midst of the sheep, nor at any time ever snatch them away.

81. And that house was made large and wide; a lofty tower being built upon it by the sheep, for the Lord of the sheep.

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82. The house was low, but the tower was elevated and very high.

83. Then the Lord of the sheep stood upon that tower, and caused a full table to approach before him.

84. Again I saw that those sheep wandered, and went various ways, forsaking that their house;

85. And that their Lord called to some among them, whom he sent 1 to them.

86. But these the sheep began to kill. And when one of them was saved from slaughter, 2 he leaped, and cried out against those who were desirous of killing him.

87. But the Lord of the sheep delivered him from their hands, and made him ascend to him, and remain with him.

88. He sent also many others to them, to testify, and with lamentations to exclaim against them.

89. Again I saw, when some of them forsook the house of their Lord, and his tower; wandering on all sides, and growing blind,

90. I saw that the Lord of the sheep made a great slaughter among them in their pasture, until they cried out to him in consequence of that slaughter. Then he departed from the place of his habitation, and left them in the power of lions, tigers, wolves, and the zeebt, and in the power of foxes, and of every beast.

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91. And the wild beasts began to tear them.

92. I saw, too, that he forsook the house of their fathers, and their tower; giving them all into the power of lions to tear and devour them; into the power of every beast.

93. Then I began to cry out with all my might, imploring the Lord of the sheep, and showing him how the sheep were devoured by all the beasts of prey.

94. But he looked on in silence, rejoicing that they were devoured, swallowed up, and carried off; and leaving them in the power of every beast for food. He called also seventy shepherds, and resigned to them the care of the sheep, that they might overlook them;

95. Saying to them and to their associates, Every one of you henceforwards overlook the sheep, and whatsoever I command you, do; and I will deliver them to you numbered. 1

96. I will tell you which of them shall be slain; these destroy. And he delivered the sheep to them.

97. Then he called to another, and said, Understand, and watch everything which the shepherds shall do to these sheep; for many more of them shall perish than I have commanded.

98. Of every excess and slaughter, which the shepherds shall commit, there shall be an account;

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as, how many may have perished by my command, and how many they may have destroyed of their own heads.

99. Of all the destruction brought about by each of the shepherds there shall be an account; and according to the number I will cause a recital to be made before me, how many they have destroyed of their own heads, and how many they have delivered up to destruction, that I may have this testimony against them; that I may know all their proceedings; and that, delivering the sheep to them, I may see what they will do; whether they will act as I have commanded them, or not.

100. Of this, however, they shall be ignorant; neither shalt thou make any explanation to them, neither shalt thou reprove them; but there shall be an account of all the destruction done by them in their respective seasons. Then they began to kill, and destroy more than it was commanded them.

101. And they left the sheep in the power of lions, so that very many of them were devoured and swallowed up by lions and tigers; and wild boars preyed upon them. That tower they burnt, and overthrew that house.

102. Then I grieved extremely on account of the tower, and because the house of the sheep was overthrown.

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103. Neither was I afterwards able to perceive whether they again entered that house.

104. The shepherds likewise, and their associates, delivered them to all the wild beasts, that they might devour them. Each of them in his season, according to his number, was delivered up; each of them, one with another, was described in a book, how many of them, one with another, were destroyed, in a book.

105. More, however, than was ordered, every shepherd killed and destroyed.

106. Then I began to weep, and was greatly indignant, on account of the sheep.

107. In like manner also I saw in the vision him who wrote, how he wrote down one, destroyed by the shepherds, every day. He ascended, remained, and exhibited each of his books to the Lord of the sheep, containing all which they had done, and all which each of them had made away with;

108. And all which they had delivered up to destruction.

109. He took the book up in his hands, read it, sealed it, and deposited it.

110. After this, I saw shepherds overlooking for twelve hours.

111. And behold three of the sheep 1 departed,

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arrived, went in; and began building all which was fallen down of that house.

112. But the wild boars 1 hindered them, although they prevailed not.

113. Again they began to build as before, and raised up that tower, which was called a lofty tower.

114. And again they began to place before the tower a table, with every impure and unclean kind of bread upon it.

115. Moreover also all the sheep were blind, and could not see; as were the shepherds likewise.

116. Thus were they delivered up to the shepherds for a great destruction, who trod them under foot, and devoured them.

117. Yet was their Lord silent, until all the sheep in the field were destroyed. The shepherds and the sheep were all mixed together; but they did not save them from the power of the beasts.

118. Then he who wrote the book ascended, exhibited it, and read it at the residence of the Lord of the sheep. He petitioned him for them, and prayed, pointing out every act of the shepherds, and testifying before him against them all. Then taking the book, he deposited it with him, and departed.

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1. And I observed during the time, that thus thirty-seven 1 shepherds were overlooking, all of whom finished in their respective periods as the first. Others then received them into their hands, that they might overlook them in their respective periods, every shepherd in his own period.

2. Afterwards I saw in the vision, that all the birds of heaven arrived; eagles, the avest, kites and ravens. The eagle instructed them all.

3. They began to devour the sheep, to peck out their eyes, and to eat up their bodies.

4. The sheep then cried out; for their bodies were devoured by the birds.

5. I also cried out, and groaned in my sleep against that shepherd which overlooked the flock.

6. And I looked, while the sheep were eaten up by the dogs, by the eagles, and by the kites. They neither left them their body, nor their skin, nor their muscles, until their bones alone remained; until their bones fell upon the ground. And the sheep became diminished.

7. I observed likewise during the time, that twenty-three shepherds 2 were overlooking; who

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completed in their respective periods fifty-eight periods.

8. Then were small lambs born of those white sheep; who began to open their eyes and to see, crying out to the sheep.

9. The sheep, however, cried not out to them, neither did they hear what they uttered to them; but were deaf, blind, and obdurate in the greatest degrees.

10. I saw in the vision that ravens flew down upon those lambs;

11. That they seized one of them; and that tearing the sheep in pieces, they devoured them.

12. I saw also, that horns grew upon those lambs; and that the ravens lighted down upon their horns.

13. I saw, too, that a large horn sprouted out on an animal 1 among the sheep, and that their eyes were opened.

14. He looked at them. Their eyes were wide open; and he cried out to them.

15. Then the dabela 2 saw him; all of whom ran to him.

16. And besides this, all the eagles, the avest, the ravens and the kites, were still carrying off the sheep, flying down upon them, and devouring them.

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[paragraph continues] The sheep were silent, but the dabela lamented and cried out.

17. Then the ravens contended, and struggled with them.

18. They wished among them to break his horn; but they prevailed not over him.

19. I looked on them, until the shepherds, the eagles, the avest, and the kites came.

20. Who cried out to the ravens to break the horn of the dabela; to contend with him; and to kill him. But he struggled with them, and cried out, that help might come to him.

21. Then I perceived that the man came who had written down the names of the shepherds, and who ascended up before the Lord of the sheep.

22. He brought assistance, and caused every one to see him descending to the help of the dabela.

23. I perceived likewise that the Lord of the sheep came to them in wrath, while all those who saw him fled away; all fell down in his tabernacle before his face; while all the eagles, the avest, ravens, and kites assembled, and brought with them all the sheep of the field.

24. All came together, and strove to break the horn of the dabela.

25. Then I saw, that the man, who wrote the book at the word of the Lord, opened the book of destruction, of that destruction which the last

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twelve shepherds 1 wrought; and pointed out before the Lord of the sheep, that they destroyed more than those who preceded them.

26. I saw also that the Lord of the sheep came to them, and taking in his hand the sceptre of his wrath seized the earth, which became rent asunder; while all the beasts and birds of heaven fell from the sheep, and sunk into the earth, which closed over them.

27. I saw, too, that a large sword was given to the sheep, who went forth against all the beasts of the field to slay them.

28. But all the beasts and birds of heaven fled away from before their face.

29. And I saw a throne erected in a delectable land;

30. Upon this sat the Lord of the sheep, who received all the sealed books;

31. Which were open before him.

32. Then the Lord called the first seven white ones, and commanded them to bring before him the first of the first stars, which preceded the stars whose form partly resembled that of horses; the first star, which fell down first; and they brought them all before him.

33. And he spoke to the man who wrote in his

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presence, who was one of the seven white ones, saying, Take those seventy shepherds, to whom I delivered up the sheep, and who receiving them killed more of them than I commanded. Behold, I saw them all bound, and all standing before him. First came on the trial of the stars, which, being judged, and found guilty, went to the place of punishment. They thrust them into a place, deep, and full of flaming fire, and full of pillars of fire. Then the seventy shepherds were judged, and being found guilty, were thrust into the flaming abyss.

34. At that time likewise I perceived, that one abyss was thus opened in the midst of the earth, which was full of fire.

35. And to this were brought the blind sheep; which being judged, and found guilty, were all thrust into that abyss of fire on the earth, and burnt.

36. The abyss was on the right of that house.

37. And I saw the sheep burning, and their bones consuming.

38. I stood beholding him immerge that ancient house, while they brought out its pillars, every plant in it, and the ivory infolding it. They brought it out, and deposited it in a place on the right side of the earth.

39. I also saw, that the Lord of the sheep produced a new house, great, and loftier than the

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former, which he bounded by the former circular spot. All its pillars were new, and its ivory new, as well as more abundant than the former ancient ivory, which he had brought out.

40. And while all the sheep which were left were in the midst of it, all the beasts of the earth, and all the birds of heaven, fell down and worshipped them, petitioning them, and obeying them in everything.

41. Then those three, who were clothed in white, and who, holding me by my hand, had before caused me to ascend, while the hand of him who spoke held me; raised me up, and placed me in the midst of the sheep, before the judgment took place.

42. The sheep were all white, with wool long and pure. Then all who had perished, and had been destroyed, every beast of the field, and every bird of heaven, assembled in that house: while the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy, because all were good, and had come back again to his dwelling.

43. And I saw that they laid down the sword which had been given to the sheep, and returned it to his house, sealing it up in the presence of the Lord.

44. All the sheep would have been inclosed in that house, had it been capable of containing them; 1 and the eyes of all were open, gazing on the good

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[paragraph continues] One; nor was there one among them who did not behold him.

45. I likewise perceived that the house was large, wide, and extremely full. I saw, too, that a white cow was born, whose horns were great; and that all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of heaven, were alarmed at him, and entreated him at all times.

46. Then I saw that the nature of all of them was changed, and that they became white cows;

47. And that the first, who was in the midst of them, spoke, 1 when that word became a large beast, upon the head of which were great and black horns;

48. While the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over them, and over all the cows.

49. I lay down in the midst of them: I awoke; and saw the whole. This is the vision which I saw, lying down and waking. Then I blessed the Lord of righteousness, and gave glory to Him.

50. Afterwards I wept abundantly, nor did my tears cease, so that I became incapable of enduring it. While I was looking on, they flowed 2 on account of what I saw; for all was come and gone by; every individual circumstance respecting the conduct of mankind was seen by me.

51. In that night I remembered my former

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dream; and therefore wept and was troubled, because I had seen that vision.



1. And now, my son Mathusala, call to me all thy brethren, and assemble for me all the children of thy mother; for a voice calls me, and the spirit is poured out upon me, that I may show you everything which shall happen to you for ever.

2. Then Mathusala went, called to him all his brethren, and assembled his kindred.

3. And conversing with all his children in truth,

4. Enoch said, Hear, my children, every word of your father, and listen in uprightness to the voice of my mouth; for I would gain your attention, while I address you. My beloved, be attached to integrity, and walk in it.

5. Approach not integrity with a double heart; nor be associated with double-minded men: but walk, my children, in righteousness, which will conduct you in good paths; and be truth your companion.

6. For I know, that oppression will exist and prevail on earth; that on earth great punishment shall in the end take place; and that there shall be a consummation of all iniquity, which shall be

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cut off from its root, and every fabric raised by it shall pass away. Iniquity, however, shall again be renewed, and consummated on earth. Every act of crime, and every act of oppression and impiety, shall be a second time embraced.

7. When therefore iniquity, sin, blasphemy, tyranny, and every evil work, shall increase, and when transgression, impiety, and uncleanness also shall increase, then upon them all shall great punishment be inflicted from heaven.

8. The holy Lord shall go forth in wrath, and upon them all shall great punishment from heaven be inflicted. 1

9. The holy Lord shall go forth in wrath, and with punishment, that he may execute judgment upon earth.

10. In those days oppression shall be cut off from its roots, and iniquity with fraud shall be eradicated, perishing from under heaven.

11. Every place of strength 2 shall be surrendered with its inhabitants; with fire shall it be burnt. They shall be brought from every part of the earth, and be cast into a judgment of fire. They shall perish in wrath, and by a judgment overpowering them 3 for ever.

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12. Righteousness shall be raised up from slumber; and wisdom shall be raised up, and conferred upon them.

13. Then shall the roots of iniquity be cut off; sinners perish by the sword; and blasphemers be annihilated everywhere. 1

14. Those who meditate oppression, and those who blaspheme, by the sword shall perish. 2

15. And now, my children, I will describe and point out to you the path of righteousness and the path of oppression.

16. I will again point them out to you, that you may know what is to come.

17. Here now, my children, and walk in the path of righteousness, but shun that of oppression; for all who walk in the path of iniquity shall perish for ever.

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1. That which was written by Enoch. He wrote all this instruction of wisdom for every man of dignity, and every judge of the earth; for all my children who shall dwell upon earth, and for subsequent generations, conducting themselves uprightly and peaceably.

2. Let not your spirit be grieved on account of the times; for the holy, the Great One, has prescribed a period 2 to all.

3. Let the righteous man arise from slumber; let him arise, and proceed in the path of righteousness, in all its paths; and let him advance 3 in goodness and in eternal clemency. Mercy shall be showed to the righteous man; upon him shall be conferred integrity and power for ever. In goodness and in righteousness shall he exist, and shall walk in everlasting light; but sin shall perish in eternal darkness, nor be seen from this time forward for evermore.



1. After this, Enoch began to speak from a book.

2. And Enoch said, Concerning the children of righteousness, concerning the elect of the world,

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and concerning the plant of righteousness and integrity.

3. Concerning these things will I speak, and these things will I explain to you, my children: I who am Enoch. In consequence of that which has been shown to me, from my heavenly vision and from the voice of the holy angels have I acquired knowledge; and from the tablet of heaven have I acquired understanding.

4. Enoch then began to speak from a book, and said, I have been born the seventh in the first week, while judgment and righteousness wait with patience.

5. But after me, in the second week, great wickedness shall arise, and fraud shall spring forth.

6. In that week 1 the end of the first shall take place, in which mankind shall be safe.

7. But when the first is completed, 2 iniquity shall grow up; and he shall execute the decree upon sinners. 3

8. Afterwards, in the third week, during its completion, a man 4 of the plant of righteous judgment shall be selected; and after him the plant of righteousness shall come for ever.

9. Subsequently, in the fourth week, during its completion, the visions of the holy and the righteous

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shall be seen, the order of generation after generation shall take place, and an habitation shall be made for them. 1 Then in the fifth week, during its completion, the house of glory and of dominion 2 shall be erected for ever.

10. After that, in the sixth week, all those who are in it shall be darkened, the hearts of all of them shall be forgetful of wisdom, and in it shall a man 3 ascend.

11. And during its completion he shall burn the house of dominion with fire, and all the race of the elect root shall be dispersed. 4

12. Afterwards, in the seventh week, a perverse generation shall arise; abundant shall be its deeds, and all its deeds perverse. During its completion, the righteous shall be selected from the everlasting plant of righteousness; and to them shall be given the sevenfold doctrine of his whole creation.

13. Afterwards there shall be another week, the eighth of righteousness, to which shall be given a sword to execute judgment and justice upon all oppressors.

14. Sinners shall be delivered up into the hands of the righteous, who during its completion shall acquire habitations by their righteousness; and the house of the great King shall be established for

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celebrations for ever. After, this, in the ninth week, shall the judgment of righteousness be revealed to the whole world.

15. Every work of the ungodly shall disappear from the whole earth; the world shall be marked for destruction; and all men shall be on the look out for the path of integrity.

16. And after this, on the seventh day of the tenth week, there shall be an everlasting judgment, which shall be executed upon the Watchers; and a spacious eternal heaven shall spring forth in the midst of the angels.

17. The former heaven shall depart and pass away; a new heaven shall appear; and all the celestial powers shine with sevenfold splendour for ever. Afterwards likewise shall there be many weeks, which shall externally exist in goodness and in righteousness.

18. Neither shall sin be named there for ever and for ever. 1

19. Who is there of all the children of men, capable of hearing the voice of the Holy One without emotion?

20. Who is there capable of thinking his thoughts?

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[paragraph continues] Who capable of contemplating all the workmanship of heaven? Who of comprehending the deeds of heaven?

21. He may behold its animation, but not its spirit. He may be capable of conversing respecting it, but not of ascending to it. He may see all the boundaries of these things, and meditate upon them; but he can make nothing like them.

22. Who of all men is able to understand the breadth and length of the earth?

23. By whom have been seen the dimensions of all these things? Is it every man who is capable of comprehending the extent of heaven; what its elevation is, and by what it is supported?

24. How many are the numbers of the stars; and where all the luminaries remain at rest?



1. And now let me exhort you, my children, to love righteousness, and to walk in it; for the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation; but the paths of iniquity shall suddenly fail, and be diminished.

2. To men of note in their generation the paths of oppression and death are revealed; but they keep far from them, and do not follow them.

3. Now, too, let me exhort you who are righteous, not to walk in the paths of evil and oppression, nor

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in the paths of death. Approach them not, that you may not perish; but covet,

4. And choose for yourselves righteousness, and a good life.

5. Walk in the paths of peace, that you may live, and be found worthy. Retain my words in your inmost thoughts, and obliterate them not from your hearts; for I know that sinners counsel men to commit crime craftily. They are not found in every place, nor does every counsel possess a little of them.

6. Woe to those who build up iniquity and oppression, and who lay the foundation of fraud; for suddenly shall they be subverted, and never obtain peace.

7. Woe to those who build up their houses with crime; for from their very foundations shall their houses 1 be demolished, and by the sword shall they themselves fall. Those, too, who acquire gold and silver, shall justly and suddenly perish. Woe to you who are rich, for in your riches have you trusted; but from your riches you shall be removed; because you have not remembered the Most High in the days of your prosperity: [you shall be removed, because you have not remembered the Most High in the days of your prosperity. 2]

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8. You have committed blasphemy and iniquity; and. are destined to the day of the effusion of blood, to the day of darkness, and to the day of the great judgment.

9. This I declare and point out to you, that he who created you will destroy you.

10. When you fall, he will not show you mercy; but your Creator will rejoice in your destruction.

11. Let those, then, who shall be righteous among you in those days, detest sinners, and the ungodly.



1. O that my eyes were clouds of water, that I might weep over you, and pour forth my tears like rain, 1 and rest from the sorrow of my heart!

2. Who has permitted you to hate and to transgress? Judgment shall overtake you, ye sinners.

3. The righteous shall not fear the wicked; because God will again bring them into your power, that you may avenge yourselves of them according to your pleasure.

4. Woe to you who shall be so bound by execrations, that you cannot be released from them; the remedy being far removed from you on account of your sins. Woe to you who recompense your

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neighbour with evil; for you shall be recompensed according to your works.

5. Woe to you, ye false witnesses, you who aggravate iniquity; for you shall suddenly perish.

6. Woe to you, ye sinners; for you reject the righteous; for you receive or reject at pleasure those who commit iniquity; and their yoke shall prevail over you.



1. Wait in hope, ye righteous; for suddenly shall sinners perish from before you, and you shall exercise dominion over them, according to your will.

2. In the day of the sufferings of sinners your offspring shall be elevated, and lifted up like eagles. Your nest shall be more exalted than that of the avest; you shall ascend, and enter into the cavities of the earth, and into the clefts of the rocks for ever, like conies, from the sight of the ungodly;

3. Who shall groan over you, and weep like sirens.

4. You shall not fear those who trouble you; for restoration shall be yours; a splendid light shall shine around you, and the voice of tranquillity shall be heard from heaven. Woe to you, sinners; for your wealth makes you resemble saints, but your hearts reproach you, knowing that you are sinners.

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[paragraph continues] This word shall testify against you, for the remembrance of crime.

5. Woe to you who feed upon the glory of the corn, and drink the strength of the deepest spring, 1 and in the pride of your power tread down the humble.

6. Woe to you who drink water at pleasure; 2 for suddenly shall you be recompensed, consumed, and withered, because you have forsaken the fountain of life.

7. Woe to you who act iniquitously, fraudulently, and blasphemously; there shall be a remembrance against you for evil.

8. Woe to you, ye powerful, who with power strike down righteousness; for the day of your destruction shall come; while at that very time many and good days shall be the portion of the righteous, 3 even at the period of your judgment.



1. The righteous are confident that sinners will be disgraced, and perish in the day of iniquity.

2. You shall yourselves be conscious of it; for the Most High will remember your destruction, and the angels shall rejoice over it. What will you do ye sinners, and where will you fly in the day of

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judgment, when you shall hear the words of the prayer of the righteous?

3. You are not like them who in this respect witness against you; you are associates of sinners.

4. In those days shall the prayers of the righteous come up before the Lord. When the day of your judgment shall arrive; and every circumstance of your iniquity be related before the great and the holy One;

5. Your faces shall be covered with shame; while every deed, strengthened by crime, shall be rejected.

6. Woe unto you, sinners, who in the midst of the sea, and on dry land, are those against whom an evil record exists. Woe to you who squander silver and gold, not obtained in righteousness, and say, We are rich, possess wealth, and have acquired everything which we can desire.

7. Now then will we do whatsoever we are disposed to do; for we have amassed silver; our barns are full, and the husbandmen of our families are like overflowing water. 1

8. Like water shall your falsehood pass away; for your wealth will not be permanent, but shall suddenly ascend from you, because you have obtained it all iniquitously; to extreme malediction shall you be delivered up.

9. And now I swear to you, ye crafty, as well as

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simple ones; that you, often contemplating the earth, you who are men, clothe yourselves more elegantly 1 than married women, and both together more so than unmarried ones, everywhere arraying yourselves in majesty, in magnificence, in authority, and in silver: but gold, purple, honour, and wealth, like water, flow away.

10. Erudition therefore and wisdom are not theirs. Thus 2 shall they perish, together with their riches, with all their glory, and with their honours;

11. While with disgrace, with slaughter, and in extreme penury, shall their spirits be thrust into a furnace of fire.

12. I have sworn to you, ye sinners, that neither mountain nor hill has been or shall be subservient 3 to woman.

13. Neither in this way has crime been sent down to us 4 upon earth, but men of their own heads have invented it; and greatly shall those who give it efficiency be execrated.

14. Barrenness shall not be previously inflicted on woman; but on account of the work of her hands shall she die childless.

15. I have sworn to you, ye sinners, by the holy and the Great One, that all your evil deeds are

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disclosed in the heavens; and that none of your oppressive acts are concealed and secret.

16. Think not in your minds, neither say in your hearts, that every crime is not manifested and seen. In heaven it is daily written down before the Most High. Henceforwards shall it be manifested; for every act of oppression which you commit shall be daily recorded, until the period of your condemnation.

17. Woe to you, ye simple ones, for you shall perish in your simplicity. To the wise you will not listen, and that which is good you shall not obtain. 1

18. Now therefore know that you are destined to the day of destruction; nor hope that sinners shall live; but in process of time you shall die; 2 for you are not marked 3 for redemption;

19. But are destined to the day of the great judgment, to the day of distress, and the extreme ignominy of your souls.

20. Woe to you, ye obdurate in heart, who commit crime, and feed on blood. Whence is it that you feed on good things, drink, and are satiated? Is it not because our Lord, the Most High, has abundantly supplied every good thing upon earth? To you there shall not be peace.

21. Woe to you who love the deeds of iniquity.

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[paragraph continues] Why do you hope for that which is good? Know that you shall be given up into the hands of the righteous; who shall cut off your necks, slay you, and show you no compassion.

22. Woe to you who rejoice in the trouble of the righteous; for a grave shall not be dug for you.

23. Woe to you who frustrate the word of the righteous; for to you there shall be no hope of life.

24. Woe to you who write down the word of falsehood, and the word of the wicked; for their falsehood they record, that they may hear and not forget folly.

25. To them there shall be no peace; but they shall surely die suddenly.



1. Woe to them who act impiously, who laud and honour the word of falsehood. You have been lost in perdition; and have never led a virtuous life.

2. Woe to you who change the words of integrity. They transgress against the everlasting decree;

3. And cause the heads of those who are not sinners to be trodden down upon the earth.

4. In those days you, O ye righteous, shall have been deemed worthy of having your prayers rise up in remembrance; and shall have deposited them

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in testimony before the angels, that they might record the sins of sinners in the presence of the Most High.

5. In those days the nations shall he overthrown; but the families of the nations shall rise again in the day of perdition.

6. In those days they who become pregnant shall go forth, carry off their children, and forsake them. Their offspring shall slip from them, and while suckling them shall they forsake them; they shall never return to them, and never instruct their beloved.

7. Again I swear to you, ye sinners, that crime has been prepared for the day of blood, which never ceases.

8. They shall worship stones, and engrave golden, silver, and wooden images. They shall worship impure spirits, demons, and every idol, in temples; but no help shall be obtained for them. 1 Their hearts shall become impious through their folly, and their eyes be blinded with mental superstition. 2 In their visionary dreams shall they be impious and superstitious, 3 lying in all their actions, and worshipping a stone. Altogether shall they perish.

9. But in those days blessed shall they be, to whom the word of wisdom is delivered; who point

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out and pursue the path of the Most High; who walk in the way of righteousness, and who act not impiously with the impious.

10. They shall be saved.

11. Woe to you who expand the crime of your neighbour; for in hell shall you be slain.

12. Woe to you who lay the foundation of sin and deceit, and who are bitter on earth; for on it shall you be consumed.

13. Woe to you who build your houses by the labour of others, every part of which is constructed with brick, 1 and with the stone of crime; I tell you, that you shall not obtain peace.

14. Woe to you who despise the extent of the everlasting inheritance of your fathers, while your souls follow after idols; for to you there shall be no tranquillity.

15. Woe to them who commit iniquity, and give aid to blasphemy, who slay their neighbour until the day of the great judgment; for your glory shall fall; malevolence shall He put into your hearts, and the spirit of his wrath shall stir you up, that every one of you may perish by the sword.

16. Then shall all the righteous and the holy remember your crimes.

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1. In those days shall fathers be struck down with their children in the presence of each other; 1 and brethren with their brethren shall fall dead: until a river shall flow from their blood.

2. For a man shall not restrain his hand from his children, nor from his children's children; his mercy will be to kill them. 2

3. Nor shall the sinner restrain his hand from his honoured brother. From the dawn of day to the setting sun shall the slaughter continue. 3 The horse shall wade up to his breast, and the chariot shall sink to its axle, 4 in the blood of sinners.



1. In those days the angels shall descend into places of concealment, and gather together in one spot all who have assisted in crime.

2. In that day shall the Most High rise up to execute the great judgment upon all sinners, and to commit the guardianship of all the righteous and holy to the holy angels, that they may protect them as the apple of an eye, until every evil and every crime be annihilated.

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3. Whether or no the righteous sleep securely, 1 wise men shall then truly perceive.

4. And the sons of the earth shall understand every word of that book, knowing that their riches cannot save them in the ruin of their crimes.

5. Woe to you, ye sinners, when you shall be afflicted on account of the righteous in the day of the great trouble; shall be burnt in the fire; and be recompensed according to your deeds.

6. Woe to you, ye perverted in heart, who are watchful to obtain an accurate knowledge of evil, and to discover terrors. No one shall assist you.

7. Woe to you, ye sinners; for with the words of your mouths, and with the work of your hands, have you acted impiously; in the flame of a blazing fire shall you be burnt.

8. And now know ye, that the angels shall inquire into your conduct in heaven; of the sun, the moon, and the stars, shall they inquire respecting your sins; for upon earth you exercise jurisdiction over the righteous.

9. Every cloud shall bear witness against you, the snow, the dew, and the rain: for all of them shall be withholden from you, that they may not descend upon you, nor become subservient to your crimes.

10. Now then bring gifts of salutation to the rain;

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that, not being withholders, it may descend upon you; and to the dew, if it has received from you gold and silver. But when the frost, snow, cold, every snowy wind, and every suffering belonging to them, fall upon you, in those days you will be utterly incapable of standing before them.


114:1 the books of the hand of thy father.

115:1 to impress, express, or to seal.

115:2 have they related.

115:3 has breathed into me.

116:1 the sun.

118:1 Paris MS.

118:2 before thee.

118:3 cutting.

118:4 the word fell down in my mouth.

119:1 all this upon earth is from heaven.

119:2 he.

119:3 windows.

120:1 be.

121:1 the plant of a seed.

121:2 Paris MS.

121:3 The sense seems to require that the passage should be, "two other heifers."

121:4 Cain and Abel.

123:1 with my eyes.

125:1 Noah.

125:2 Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

127:1 Abraham.

127:2 Isaac.

127:3 Esau and Jacob.

127:4 The twelve Patriarchs.

127:5 Joseph.

127:6 The Midianites.

127:7 The Egyptians.

128:1 Moses.

128:2 Aaron.

129:1 The Red Sea.

131:1 The river Jordan.

132:1 The Judges of Israel.

132:2 Samuel.

132:3 Saul.

132:4 another.

132:5 David.

133:1 The Philistines.

133:2 Solomon.

134:1 The prophets.

134:2 Elijah.

135:1 with number.

137:1 Zerubbabel, Joshua, and Nehemiah.

138:1 The Samaritans.

139:1 An apparent error for thirty-five. See verse 7. The kings of Judah and Israel.

139:2 The kings of Babylon, etc., during and after the captivity. The numbers thirty-five and twenty-three make fifty-eight; and not thirty-seven, as erroneously put in the first verse.

140:1 on one.

140:2 The ibex, probably symbolizing Alexander the Great.

142:1 The native princes of Judah after its delivery from the Syrian yoke.

144:1 were inclosed in that house, and it did not contain them.

145:1 became a word.

145:2 descended.

146:1 Paris MS.

147:1 This verse is wanting in the Paris MS. as transcribed by Woide. It seems in the Bodleian MS. to be a mere lapse of the transcriber, who wrote the same words twice over.

147:2 tower, palace, or temple.

147:3 powerful judgment.

148:1 cut off.

148:2 Between the 14th and 15th verses of this chapter six others are inserted both in the Bodleian and Paris MSS., which I have transposed so as to constitute the 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th verses of the ninety-second chapter. This transposition seemed absolutely necessary to make sense of that chapter; in which, after the enumeration of seven weeks, or periods, the account of the eighth, ninth, and tenth weeks, contained in the verses transposed, seemed necessary to complete the narrative. Here they are clearly unconnected and misplaced.

149:1 Paris MS.

149:2 has given days.

149:3 his goings be.

150:1 in it.

150:2 after it has been completed.

150:3 The deluge.

150:4 Abraham.

151:1 The Law.

151:2 Temple of Solomon.

151:3 Nebuchadnezzar.

151:4 Babylonian captivity.

152:1 The preceding six verses, viz. 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th, are taken from between the 14th and 15th verses of the nineteenth chapter, where they are to be found in the MSS. But the sense in this place seemed so manifestly to require them here, that I have ventured to transpose them.

154:1 they.

154:2 These lines are evidently a repetition of the preceding, from an error in the transcription. They do not occur in the Paris 14 MS.

155:1 a cloud of water.

157:1 of the root of the spring.

157:2 at all times.

157:3 shall come to the righteous.

158:1 like much water.

159:1 put elegance upon you more.

159:2 And in it.

159:3 a servant. Perhaps in furnishing them with treasures for ornaments.

159:4 has our crime been sent down.

160:1 shall not find you.

160:2 you shall go on, and die.

160:3 pointed out.

162:1 shall be found for them.

162:2 with the fear of their heart.

162:3 and fear.

163:1 every structure of which is brick.

164:1 in one place.

164:2 he has been merciful, that he may kill.

164:3 they shall be slain.

164:4 its upper part.

165:1 a deep sleep.

Next: Chapters C-CV