the earth, 1 those who are named the Watchers, 2 that they should instruct the children of men, 3 and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 16. And in the eleventh jubilee Jared took to himself
the Sabbaths of the years as we made (them) known to him. 19. And what was and what will be he saw in a vision 1 of his sleep, as it will happen to the children of men throughout their generations until the day of judgment; he 2 saw and understood everything, and wrote his testimony, and placed the testimony on earth for all the children of men and
condemnation. 1 25. And he burnt the incense of the sanctuary, (even) sweet spices, 2 acceptable before the Lord on the Mount. 26. For the Lord hath four places 3 on the earth, the Garden of Eden, and the Mount of the East, 4 and this mountain on which thou art this day, Mount Sinai, and Mount Zion (which) will be sanctified in the new creation for a sanctification of the earth; through it will the earth be sanctified from all (its) guilt and its uncleanness throughout the generations of the world. 5 27. And in the fourteenth
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of the heavens and therefore was it written concerning the tree of knowledge: "On the day that ye eat thereof ye will die." 1 For this reason he did not complete the years of this day; for he died during it. 31. At the close of this jubilee Cain was killed after him in the same year; for his house fell upon him and he died in the midst of his house, and he was killed by its stones, for with a stone he had killed Abel, and by a stone was he killed in righteous judgment. 32. For this reason it was ordained on the heavenly tables: "With the instrument with which a man killeth his neighbour with the same shall he be killed; after the manner that he wounded him, in like manner shall they deal with him." 2 33. And in
52:7 For 13-14 cf. Gen. v. 9, 12.
52:8 A fem. form = "she who praises God."
52:9 Cf. Gen. v. 15.
53:1 This last line looks like a quotation from 1 Enoch vi. 6 ("who descended in the days of Jared"). Note the play in Hebrew on the name Jared (yāred) and "descended" (Heb. yārĕdû). The myth of the descent of the angels was based on Gen. vi. 1-4, but was rejected by the Rabbis, who rendered "sons of God" (i. e. angels) "sons of the judges."
53:2 This name is given to angels in Dan. iv. 13, 17, 23; in 1 Enoch it is applied especially to the fallen angels (cf. 1 Enoch i. 5, x. 9, 15 and often).
53:3 This statement is interesting. It describes what was probably the original commission by God to the angelic watchers, who, however, fell when they descended to the earth. According to 1 Enoch, Enoch acquired his supernatural knowledge from the instruction of angels.
53:4 Cf. Gen. v. 18.
53:5 The passage that follows about Enoch (17-23) implies knowledge on the part of the author of Enochic writings. Charles infers that these were 1 Enoch vi-xvi., xxiii.-xxxvi., and lxxii.-xc.
53:6 Cf. the phrase "Scribe of righteousness" applied to Enoch in 1 Enoch xii. 4, xv . 1.
53:7 Probably a reference to 1 Enoch lxxii.-lxxxii. ("The Book of the courses of the Heavenly Luminaries ").
53:8 There is nothing in 1 or 2 Enoch about "jubilees," etc. This statement is probably due solely to the author of Jubilees, who wished to invest the institution with a spurious antiquity.
54:1 The reference is probably to the "Dream-Visions" (1 Enoch lxxxiii.-xc.).
54:2 i. e. Enoch. The writings of Enoch are mentioned elsewhere (1 Enoch, Test. XII. Patriarchs).
54:3 Edna in 1 Enoch lxxxv. 3.
54:4 Cf. Gen. V. 21.
54:5 1 Enoch xxiii.-xxxvi.
54:6 Cf. 1 Enoch lxx. 1-3.
54:7 Cf. 1 Enoch xii. 3 f., xiv. i. The title ("Scribe of the Knowledge of the Most High") is conferred upon Ezra in 4 Ezra xiv. 50 (Syriac text).
54:8 Cf. 2 Enoch xxxiv. 3.
55:1 Cf. x. 17.
55:2 Cf. Exod. xxx. 7.
55:3 Three of these places are connected with critical events in the history of the world; Eden (with Adam), Sinai (with Moses), Zion (with David).
55:4 The exact identification is uncertain; possibly the mount above Eden, where the Scthites live, is meant. Other suggestions are Mt. Ephraim, which would imply a Samaritan authorship, and Lubar, on Ararat, which would connect well with the history of Noah.
55:5 Cf. i. 29.
55:6 Cf. Gen. v. 25.
55:7 Cf. Gen. v. 29.
55:8 Cf. iii. 32.
55:9 This implies the view that Abel's body was not buried before Adam's. According to Pirḳe de R. Eliezer (xxi.), Adam was at first uncertain what to do, but then buried Abel's corpse.
56:1 Cf. Gen. ii. 14. Notice that "day" here is interpreted as = 1000 years--a belief early current among Jews and Christians (cf. Ber. rabba xix. on Gen. iii. 8), 2 Pet. iii. 8. Justin Martyr, Trypho. lxxxi; cf. also Pirḳe de R. Eliezer xviii.
56:2 The lex talionis; cf. Exod. xxi. 24 ("eye for eye, tooth for tooth"); Lev. xxiv. 19. Similar examples are given in 2 Macc. v. 19 f., xv. 32 f. The rigorous application of this "law" was upheld by the Sadducees, as against the Pharisees.
56:3 Cf. Gen. V. 22. Note that Shem is represented as the eldest; cf. Gen. x. 21 (R.V.).